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Correlations between Percentages of English Learners (EL) and Students Who Have Been Reclassified for Each Year
Percentage of EL (2004-05) Percentage of EL (2005-06) Percentage of EL (2006-07) Percentage of EL (2007-08) Percentage of EL (2008-09)
Percentage of Students Who Have Been Reclassified 0.17 0.14 0.08 0.05 -0.06

Reclassification rates were also compared to percentages of English learners who scored in the proficient range on the California Standards Tests (CSTs). Pearson correlations were conducted to assess the relationship between the percentages of students who were proficient each year and the percentage of students reported as reclassified for each year (2004-05, 2005-06, 2006-07, 2007-08, and 2008-09). Results for all of the correlations were not significant, suggesting that there was no relationship between percentages of EL scores and percentage of reclassified students for each year. Results of the correlations are presented in Table 6.

Correlations between Percentages of English Learner (EL) Scores and Percentage of Reclassified Students by Year
EL (2004-05) EL (2005-06) EL (2006-07) EL (2007-08) EL (2008-09)
Percentage of Reclassified Students 0.15 0.10 0.16 0.04 0.10

Exceptions to the overall findings

Even though the overall findings described some important trends, there were several schools that stood out as exemplary exceptions to these findings. For example, a few schools showed a significant closure of the academic achievement gap between English learners and the English only students attending the same school (See schools # 1 and #2 in Table 7). The White students attending these two schools had significantly better achievement than English learners in 2004-05. These schools managed to maintain and improve that achievement level in the White students while showing dramatic improvement in achievement in the English learners. What can school leaders learn from these success stories? What role does leadership play in the success of the students? These questions and others must be explored by leaders.

Other schools also showed growth in both groups, yet the gap between the groups grew over the five school years that were targeted in this study. While many schools fell somewhere in between, English Learners in schools 1 and 2 made significant growth while English Learners in schools 3 and 4 suffered significant losses.

Achievement Gaps in Four Sample Schools between English Learners (EL) and White Subgroups
2004-05 EL 2004-05 White 2004-05 Gap 2008-09 EL 2008-09 White 2008-09 Gap Gap Difference
School 1 30.8 63.2 32.4 46.1 65.7 19.6 - 12.8
School 2 27.7 58.7 31.0 47.7 64.4 16.7 - 14.3
School 3 10.4 18.8 8.4 27.7 46.7 19.0 + 10.6
School 4 5.5 9.1 3.6 31.1 72.7 41.6 + 38.0


What can school leaders learn from this study? Possibly the greatest implication from the findings of this study is that while a growing overall assessment score often indicates a growing English learner subgroup score, the achievement gap still persists which indicates that schools still have a long way to go to achieve equity and equality. Although the percentage of English learners who are academically proficient has grown, the White subgroup has grown even more implying that changes in curriculum and instruction are benefiting all students. In spite of that overall benefit, the changes are most likely still general strategies that benefit all students but are not specifically designed to meet the needs of English learners.

Questions & Answers

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That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Source:  OpenStax, Educational leadership and administration: teaching and program development, volume 23, 2011. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11358/1.4
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