<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Examples of power

Examples of power are limited only by the imagination, because there are as many types as there are forms of work and energy. (See [link] for some examples.) Sunlight reaching Earth’s surface carries a maximum power of about 1.3 kilowatts per square meter ( kW/m 2 ) . size 12{ \( "kW/m" rSup { size 8{2} } \) "." } {} A tiny fraction of this is retained by Earth over the long term. Our consumption rate of fossil fuels is far greater than the rate at which they are stored, so it is inevitable that they will be depleted. Power implies that energy is transferred, perhaps changing form. It is never possible to change one form completely into another without losing some of it as thermal energy. For example, a 60-W incandescent bulb converts only 5 W of electrical power to light, with 55 W dissipating into thermal energy. Furthermore, the typical electric power plant converts only 35 to 40% of its fuel into electricity. The remainder becomes a huge amount of thermal energy that must be dispersed as heat transfer, as rapidly as it is created. A coal-fired power plant may produce 1000 megawatts; 1 megawatt (MW) is 10 6 W size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{6} } " W"} {} of electric power. But the power plant consumes chemical energy at a rate of about 2500 MW, creating heat transfer to the surroundings at a rate of 1500 MW. (See [link] .)

A distant view of a coal-fired power plant with clearly visible cooling towers generating electric power and emitting a large amount of gases.
Tremendous amounts of electric power are generated by coal-fired power plants such as this one in China, but an even larger amount of power goes into heat transfer to the surroundings. The large cooling towers here are needed to transfer heat as rapidly as it is produced. The transfer of heat is not unique to coal plants but is an unavoidable consequence of generating electric power from any fuel—nuclear, coal, oil, natural gas, or the like. (credit: Kleinolive, Wikimedia Commons)
Power output or consumption
Object or Phenomenon Power in Watts
Supernova (at peak) 5 × 10 37 size 12{5 times "10" rSup { size 8{"37"} } } {}
Milky Way galaxy 10 37 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{"37"} } } {}
Crab Nebula pulsar 10 28 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{"28"} } } {}
The Sun 4 × 10 26 size 12{4 times "10" rSup { size 8{"26"} } } {}
Volcanic eruption (maximum) 4 × 10 15 size 12{4 times "10" rSup { size 8{"15"} } } {}
Lightning bolt 2 × 10 12 size 12{2 times "10" rSup { size 8{"12"} } } {}
Nuclear power plant (total electric and heat transfer) 3 × 10 9 size 12{3 times "10" rSup { size 8{9} } } {}
Aircraft carrier (total useful and heat transfer) 10 8 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{8} } } {}
Dragster (total useful and heat transfer) 2 × 10 6 size 12{2 times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } } {}
Car (total useful and heat transfer) 8 × 10 4 size 12{8 times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } } {}
Football player (total useful and heat transfer) 5 × 10 3 size 12{5 times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}
Clothes dryer 4 × 10 3 size 12{4 times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}
Person at rest (all heat transfer) 100 size 12{"100"} {}
Typical incandescent light bulb (total useful and heat transfer) 60 size 12{"60"} {}
Heart, person at rest (total useful and heat transfer) 8 size 12{8} {}
Electric clock 3 size 12{3} {}
Pocket calculator 10 3 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{-3} } } {}

Power and energy consumption

We usually have to pay for the energy we use. It is interesting and easy to estimate the cost of energy for an electrical appliance if its power consumption rate and time used are known. The higher the power consumption rate and the longer the appliance is used, the greater the cost of that appliance. The power consumption rate is P = W / t = E / t size 12{P= {W} slash {t} = {E} slash {t} } {} , where E size 12{E} {} is the energy supplied by the electricity company. So the energy consumed over a time t size 12{t} {} is

E = Pt. size 12{E= ital "Pt"} {}

Electricity bills state the energy used in units of kilowatt-hours ( kW h ) , size 12{ \( "kW" cdot h \) ,} {} which is the product of power in kilowatts and time in hours. This unit is convenient because electrical power consumption at the kilowatt level for hours at a time is typical.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply
Practice Key Terms 4

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Unit 5 - work and energy. OpenStax CNX. Jan 02, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11946/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Unit 5 - work and energy' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask