<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
Locomotion
= Movement or the ability to move from one place to another.
Human locomotion
= the ability you have to move from one place to another ( walking from your house to a friend’s)

Harvard Outreach: Leg mechanics of playing basketball:

http://outreach.mcb.harvard.edu/animations_S09.htm

What is used during locomotion?

1) bones - body’s Supporting structure

  • provide the framework
  • provide internal core structure for the attachment of muscles.
  • Protection of human organs
  • Keeps body shape

2) joints - place in your body Where two bones are connected

Three types of joints in your body:

I) fibrous joints

  • join bones where no movement is allowed
  • An example will be the bones of your cranium (the skull).

Ii) cartilaginous joints

  • allows slight, restricted movement
  • for example the discs between the vertebrae of the spine

Iii) synovial joints

  • Allow free movement in one or more directions to the joints of the pelvic and pectoral girdles.
  • These joints facilitate movements like standing, sitting, walking and running.

Ii) cartilaginous joints

  • allows slight, restricted movement
  • for example the discs between the vertebrae of the spine

Iii) synovial joints

  • Allow free movement in one or more directions to the joints of the pelvic and pectoral girdles.
  • These joints facilitate movements like standing, sitting, walking and running.

Iii) synovial joints

  • Allow free movement in one or more directions to the joints of the pelvic and pectoral girdles.
  • These joints facilitate movements like standing, sitting, walking and running.

3) ligaments – connect bone and bone.

  • Hold bone in place so that they work in a coordinated manner.

4) tendons - connect muscles to bone.

  • Attachment to the skeletal muscles move your bones
  • Facilitate the various positions of the body related to movement and balance.

5) antagonistic muscles

  • Antagonistic = ‘opposite’
  • Antagonistic movement of muscles
  • at least two sets of muscles
  • one set contracts and the other relaxes
  • Contraction = stimulated muscle – becomes shorter and thicker
  • Relaxation = muscle relaxes

Example: biceps and triceps

  • The biceps is an example of a flexor muscle (muscle whose contraction shortens a body part)
  • Whereas the triceps is an example of an extensor muscle (muscle whose contraction extends or stretches a body part).
  • Note that voluntary muscles are normally connected to at least two bones.

In the case of the biceps the two bones involved are the scapula and the humerus

  • When the biceps muscle contracts only one of the bones moves ( in this case the radius). The point of attachment to the movable bone is called the point of insertion and the biceps is attached to this point by a single tendon. So when the biceps contracts the forearm is lifted or bent, decreasing the angle between the forearm and humerus. and flexing your arm, Thus the biceps is a flexor muscle
  • The biceps muscle gets its name from having two tendons attached to the scapula. The resistance. of these two tendons prevents the contractile force of thebiceps from moving the scapula and therefore there is no movement of the bone..
  • The point of attachment of a muscle to the immovable bone is called the point of origin.

Figure 2.2.1: Illustration of the triceps (extensor muscle) and biceps muscles (flexor muscle). Found in http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Anatomy_and_physiology_of_animals_Antagon istic_muscles,_flexion%26tension.jpg

Straightening of the forearm

  • When the arm is bent the biceps cannot contract as it is already in a contracted state as muscles can only cause movement by pulling as they contract not by pushing when they relax.
  • Therefore the straightening of the arm is brought about by the contraction of the triceps muscle which is an extensor muscle as it increases the angle between forearm and humerus
  • The triceps has three points of origin, two on the humerus and one on the scapula, and a single point of insertion on the ulna.

Title

Video illustrating the mechanics of the antagonism within the biceps and triceps.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T-ozRNVhGVg&feature=related

Antagonistic muscles:

http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/Sci_Ed/grade10/manphys/skel_mus.htm

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
why and for what was five kingdom of classification of organisms introduced
SUBHIKSHA Reply
give the ans as fast as possible
SUBHIKSHA
Comment on the ozone depletion over the period of 1982 to 1996
Mpho Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula: life sciences grade 10. OpenStax CNX. Apr 11, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11410/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Siyavula: life sciences grade 10' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask