<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
Locomotion
= Movement or the ability to move from one place to another.
Human locomotion
= the ability you have to move from one place to another ( walking from your house to a friend’s)

Harvard Outreach: Leg mechanics of playing basketball:

http://outreach.mcb.harvard.edu/animations_S09.htm

What is used during locomotion?

1) bones - body’s Supporting structure

  • provide the framework
  • provide internal core structure for the attachment of muscles.
  • Protection of human organs
  • Keeps body shape

2) joints - place in your body Where two bones are connected

Three types of joints in your body:

I) fibrous joints

  • join bones where no movement is allowed
  • An example will be the bones of your cranium (the skull).

Ii) cartilaginous joints

  • allows slight, restricted movement
  • for example the discs between the vertebrae of the spine

Iii) synovial joints

  • Allow free movement in one or more directions to the joints of the pelvic and pectoral girdles.
  • These joints facilitate movements like standing, sitting, walking and running.

Ii) cartilaginous joints

  • allows slight, restricted movement
  • for example the discs between the vertebrae of the spine

Iii) synovial joints

  • Allow free movement in one or more directions to the joints of the pelvic and pectoral girdles.
  • These joints facilitate movements like standing, sitting, walking and running.

Iii) synovial joints

  • Allow free movement in one or more directions to the joints of the pelvic and pectoral girdles.
  • These joints facilitate movements like standing, sitting, walking and running.

3) ligaments – connect bone and bone.

  • Hold bone in place so that they work in a coordinated manner.

4) tendons - connect muscles to bone.

  • Attachment to the skeletal muscles move your bones
  • Facilitate the various positions of the body related to movement and balance.

5) antagonistic muscles

  • Antagonistic = ‘opposite’
  • Antagonistic movement of muscles
  • at least two sets of muscles
  • one set contracts and the other relaxes
  • Contraction = stimulated muscle – becomes shorter and thicker
  • Relaxation = muscle relaxes

Example: biceps and triceps

  • The biceps is an example of a flexor muscle (muscle whose contraction shortens a body part)
  • Whereas the triceps is an example of an extensor muscle (muscle whose contraction extends or stretches a body part).
  • Note that voluntary muscles are normally connected to at least two bones.

In the case of the biceps the two bones involved are the scapula and the humerus

  • When the biceps muscle contracts only one of the bones moves ( in this case the radius). The point of attachment to the movable bone is called the point of insertion and the biceps is attached to this point by a single tendon. So when the biceps contracts the forearm is lifted or bent, decreasing the angle between the forearm and humerus. and flexing your arm, Thus the biceps is a flexor muscle
  • The biceps muscle gets its name from having two tendons attached to the scapula. The resistance. of these two tendons prevents the contractile force of thebiceps from moving the scapula and therefore there is no movement of the bone..
  • The point of attachment of a muscle to the immovable bone is called the point of origin.

Figure 2.2.1: Illustration of the triceps (extensor muscle) and biceps muscles (flexor muscle). Found in http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Anatomy_and_physiology_of_animals_Antagon istic_muscles,_flexion%26tension.jpg

Straightening of the forearm

  • When the arm is bent the biceps cannot contract as it is already in a contracted state as muscles can only cause movement by pulling as they contract not by pushing when they relax.
  • Therefore the straightening of the arm is brought about by the contraction of the triceps muscle which is an extensor muscle as it increases the angle between forearm and humerus
  • The triceps has three points of origin, two on the humerus and one on the scapula, and a single point of insertion on the ulna.

Title

Video illustrating the mechanics of the antagonism within the biceps and triceps.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T-ozRNVhGVg&feature=related

Antagonistic muscles:

http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/Sci_Ed/grade10/manphys/skel_mus.htm

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
why and for what was five kingdom of classification of organisms introduced
SUBHIKSHA Reply
give the ans as fast as possible
SUBHIKSHA
Comment on the ozone depletion over the period of 1982 to 1996
Mpho Reply

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play Download on the App Store Now




Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula: life sciences grade 10. OpenStax CNX. Apr 11, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11410/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Siyavula: life sciences grade 10' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask