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Objectives:

To know the techniques, tools, and issues of mitigation

To learn about influences on the adoption and implementation of mitigation

We examine influences on the adoption and implementation of building codes and standards, retrofitting, land use planning and management, insurance, and prediction/forecasting/warnings.

Example 1

Linda davis

Description of Principle: “Decisions must be made about how to help the most vulnerable, while keeping an open and constructive dialogue going about which agency (the government, NGOs, private sector, etc.) should eventually shoulder the burdens of basic public welfare.” (Christoplos, Mitchell,&Liljelund, 2001, p. 192)

Justification: Gaining the involvement of all sectors, both public and private, is critically to preparing for a disaster. As noted in an article by Godschalk, Brody,&Burby (2003), “a sustainable community selects mitigation strategies that evolve from full participation among all public and private stakeholders. The participatory process itself may be as important as the outcome” (p. 733). The dialogue is critical among these sectors, because misunderstanding about who is responsible for what can create gaps in disaster management coverage and greatly impact the lives of those affected by the disaster.

Social Work Relevance: As part of the Social Work Code of Ethics, it is the responsibility of social workers to be involved in multiple sectors (political, NGOs, private businesses, communities, etc.) in order to best meet our client’s needs. The same can be said for social workers involved in disaster management. The challenge of social workers is “to see how a concern for risk fits into the values, incentives, theories and interests which form the cognitive structures by which key actors—be they villagers, politicians, NGO volunteers, scientists or insurance salesmen—construct their own policy narratives” (Christoplos, Mitchell&Liljelund, 2001, p. 196). Known for its holistic view, the social work profession is in the perfect position to both build public awareness and build the political will to create sustainable policies for mitigation.

Related Definitions:

Mitigation : minimizing the destructive effects of disasters (Christoplos, Mitchell&Liljelund, 2001, p. 186)

Preparedness : ensuring the readiness of a society to forecast, take precautionary measures and respond to an impending disaster (Christoplos, Mitchell&Liljelund, 2001, p. 186)

Actors in Mitigation:

Non-government organizations (NGOs): involved during disaster, but their involvement “varies according to internal factors, such as the links between relief and development departments, and external factors, such as donor priorities and the contested roles of state and civil society in highlighting and managing risk (Christoplos, Mitchell&Liljelund, 2001, p. 186)

Multilateral and Bilateral Development Institutions: interested in incorporating disaster mitigation into development practices

Scientific community: use scientific knowledge to help predict and prevent disasters

Private sector: involved in disasters through insurance industry and provision of resources

Governments and Local Institutions: responsible for the safety of their citizens and communities and therefore should have a key role in mitigation and preparedness (Christoplos, Mitchell,&Liljelund, 2001)

Illustrations:

A dog sitting on a bed

This illustration demonstrates the absurdity of assuming that just because people aren’t thinking about or preparing for dangers means they aren’t going to happen. All aspects of society need to consider disaster mitigation and preparedness in order to alleviate some of the risk.

A dog sitting on a bed

This diagram shows the interactions between various levels of society (in this case in India) and how each level needs to have a defined and understood role in disaster mitigation and preparedness.

Example 2

Brodie mueller

Principle - Livelihood strategies help to keep people alive and should be used when talking about mitigation. (Christoplos, I., Mitchell, J.,&Liljelund, A. (2001) Re-framing risk: The changing context of disaster mitigation and preparedness. Disasters 25(3), Pp.185-198.)

Justification : The authors talk about the different discourses that are being held around risk. The most interesting one I thought was the efforts to understand how poor people are not just pawns in the risk mitigation plan, but can be used as real players in their neighborhoods. He suggests that people in poverty have a livelihood strategy that is more "often about addressing vulnerability and handling shocks as opposed to making plans to get out of poverty." In other words, people in poverty are just surviving, living from day to day, and learning how to handle different "shocks" where they are most vulnerable.

Social Work Relevance : I think that we do this as social workers some times. We forget that everyone has their own strategy for mitigating risk and becoming less vulnerable. Some call them coping mechanisms, but in the end these are the rules we all make for ourselves to help us survive. Therefore, when assisting disaster victims who are in poverty, we need to as ourselves "Why are they doing this like that?", but in a different way than normal. Ask it in a way to find their strengths, and understand their own mitigation strategy.

Definitions : Mitigation: Minimizing the destructive effects of disaster (pg 186). Livelihood Strategy: The day to day strategies one uses to survive poverty, trauma or other emergencies. (pg 190-191)

Illustration :

A dog sitting on a bed
Farming and agriculture is a means of life for many people, and can support economic development after a disaster.

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
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it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
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Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Disaster and vulnerable populations. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11340/1.1
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