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Back to Europe: 300 to 201 B.C.

Southern europe

Eastern mediterranean islands

As the commerce of Rhodes declined the government allied itself with Rome, a situation which was to continue for several centuries. In the Cyclades there were frequent changes of control. Crete remained a somewhat wild area with nests of pirates while Cyprus was still subservient to Egypt. (Ref. 38 )


From this time on for a number of centuries the affairs and destiny of Greece became intimately connected and almost inseparable from the Roman Empire and the military and political expansion of Hellenism lost momentum. The Romans fastened their control on Macedonia and Greece with remarkable ease between 200 and 146 B.C.. Sparta, under Nabis, attempted a revival of independence in 195 B.C. but it ended with Roman conquest. At the request of the Aetolians, Antiochus III brought Syrian forces into Greece in 192 B.C., but they, too, were routed by the Romans in the following year. Various members of the Achaean League fought as late as 146 B.C., but they did so in a divided way and fell, to become a mere backwater of the Roman Empire. As a political entity Greece disappeared from history for 2,000 years. (Ref. 28 , 222 , 77 )

Upper balkans

It was mentioned in the last chapter that Philip of Macedonia had given some help to Hannibal and that had started the Second Macedonian War in 200 B.C. Although Philip was beaten in a final battle at Cynoscephalae in 197 B.C. he was graciously restored to his throne by the Roman victor, T. Quincteus Flamininus. (Ref. 8 ) As Rome took over more territory in Asia Minor Greek-Macedonian and Roman interests again collided, opening the way for the Third Macedonian War (171-168 B.C.) in which Perseus was defeated at Pydna. After seventy Macedonian towns were razed the Romans took direct rule of the country in 146 B.C. In the latter half of the century with its gold deposits exhausted and its manpower weakened by wars and emigration, Macedon could hardly maintain its former place among the world powers.

On the western coast of the Balkan area the Romans conquered Scodra (Albania) with its King Genthius, and established Illyrium as one of the earliest of the Roman colonies. Living in the areas of modern Yugoslavia and Serbia the Dalmatians split from the Illyrians and in several later battles Dalmatia was also then conquered by the Romans. The first Germanic tribe to reach into this area was the east German Bastarnian, which settled between the lower Danube and the Black Sea. (Ref. 8 , 136 )

Italy (the map on page 242 will be applicable again)

In the first half of the century Rome continued the imperialistic conquests in the Mediterranean basin so that by 150 B.C. its territories included most of Spain, all of Italy to the Alps, Sardinia, Sicily, Illyria and the entire Greek peninsula. Allies included Numidia, Egypt, Pontus and after 133 B.C. Pergamum. In 159 B.C. after encouraging the Numidians to encroach upon Carthage to stimulate a fight locally, Rome moved in on the pretext of a broken treaty, declaring the Third Punic War. As noted in an earlier section, by 145 B.C. Carthage lay in burned ruins and Rome was in control of the Mediterranean. A typical Roman of this time was Cato, a sour, revengeful man - publicly moral, but individually cruel and selfish. He could not stand happiness in other people and it was he who urged on the Third Punic War with the slogan "Carthage must be destroyed". (Ref. 48 )

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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