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Describes the complex exponential function.


Complex exponentials are some of the most important functions in our study of signals and systems. Their importance stems from their status as eigenfunctions of linear time invariant systems. Before proceeding, you should be familiar with complex numbers.

The continuous time complex exponential

Complex exponentials

The complex exponential function will become a critical part of your study of signals and systems. Its general continuous form iswritten as

A s t
where s σ ω is a complex number in terms of σ , the attenuation constant, and ω the angular frequency.

Euler's formula

The mathematician Euler proved an important identity relating complex exponentials to trigonometric functions. Specifically, he discovered the eponymously named identity, Euler's formula, which states that

e j x = cos ( x ) + j sin ( x )

which can be proven as follows.

In order to prove Euler's formula, we start by evaluating the Taylor series for e z about z = 0 , which converges for all complex z , at z = j x . The result is

e j x = k = 0 ( j x ) k k ! = k = 0 ( - 1 ) k x 2 k ( 2 k ) ! + j k = 0 ( - 1 ) k x 2 k + 1 ( 2 k + 1 ) ! = cos ( x ) + j sin ( x )

because the second expression contains the Taylor series for cos ( x ) and sin ( x ) about t = 0 , which converge for all real x . Thus, the desired result is proven.

Choosing x = ω t this gives the result

e j ω t = cos ( ω t ) + j sin ( ω t )

which breaks a continuous time complex exponential into its real part and imaginary part. Using this formula, we can also derive the following relationships.

cos ( ω t ) = 1 2 e j ω t + 1 2 e - j ω t
sin ( ω t ) = 1 2 j e j ω t - 1 2 j e - j ω t

Continuous time phasors

It has been shown how the complex exponential with purely imaginary frequency can be broken up into its real part and its imaginary part. Now consider a general complex frequency s = σ + ω j where σ is the attenuation factor and ω is the frequency. Also consider a phase difference θ . It follows that

e ( σ + j ω ) t + j θ = e σ t cos ( ω t + θ ) + j sin ( ω t + θ ) .

Thus, the real and imaginary parts of e s t appear below.

Re { e ( σ + j ω ) t + j θ } = e σ t cos ( ω t + θ )
Im { e ( σ + j ω ) t + j θ } = e σ t sin ( ω t + θ )

Using the real or imaginary parts of complex exponential to represent sinusoids with a phase delay multiplied by real exponential is often useful and is called attenuated phasor notation.

We can see that both the real part and the imaginary part have a sinusoid times a real exponential. We also know thatsinusoids oscillate between one and negative one. From this it becomes apparent that the real and imaginary parts of thecomplex exponential will each oscillate within an envelope defined by the real exponential part.

If σ is negative, we have the case of a decaying exponential window.
If σ is positive, we have the case of a growing exponential window.
If σ is zero, we have the case of a constant window.
The shapes possible for the real part of a complex exponential. Notice that the oscillations are the result ofa cosine, as there is a local maximum at t 0 .

Complex exponential demonstration

Interact (when online) with a Mathematica CDF demonstrating the Continuous Time Complex Exponential. To Download, right-click and save target as .cdf.

Continuous time complex exponential summary

Continuous time complex exponentials are signals of great importance to the study of signals and systems. They can be related to sinusoids through Euler's formula, which identifies the real and imaginary parts of purely imaginary complex exponentials. Eulers formula reveals that, in general, the real and imaginary parts of complex exponentials are sinusoids multiplied by real exponentials. Thus, attenuated phasor notation is often useful in studying these signals.

Questions & Answers

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Stoney Reply
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Adin Reply
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what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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Damian Reply
absolutely yes
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Akash Reply
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s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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Damian Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Signals and systems. OpenStax CNX. Aug 14, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10064/1.15
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