# 3.2 Flange local buckling

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#### Introduction to flange local buckling

The fourth limit state for beams is Flange Local Buckling, or FLB for short. It is exactly the same as Web LocalBuckling, except the width-thickness ratio is in terms of the flange and not the web. This type of buckling occurswhen the width-thickness ratio is not large enough to withstand the moment on the beam. The way to prevent thistype of buckling is to limit the with-thickness ratio.

The limits can be computed for flange local buckling. The width-thickness ratio is compared to ${\lambda }_{p}$ and ${\lambda }_{r}$ . Then the maximum moment can be calculated.

#### Equations to determine flb

When,

$\frac{b}{t}< {\lambda }_{p}$
there is no FLB and the cross section is compact because,
${M}_{n}={M}_{p}$
${M}_{p}={F}_{y}Z\le 1.5{M}_{y}$
from the yielding state.

When,

${\lambda }_{p}< \frac{b}{t}< {\lambda }_{r}$
the graph is linear, and therefore a linear interpolation between ${M}_{p}$ and ${M}_{y}$ is used for the maximum moment.

And finally, when

$\frac{b}{t}> {\lambda }_{r}$
the graph is non-linear, the flange is non-slender, and there is an equation to find the maximum moment in AppendixF of the Specification section of the Manual (page 16.1-96).

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