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This module discusses the importance of ensemble intonation and provides methods to achieve excellent intonation in a choral ensemble. Techniques of correcting improper intonation and poor pitch are listed and explained.

Ensemble pitch

Ensemble pitch is an important part of the successful choral performance. Very little can be said of a performance if the choir cannot sing in tune. This is one of the reasons a pitch retention test in the audition is important. There are a number of factors to which poor intonation is attributed including: climate, tessitura of a part or parts, repeated notes, vocal fatigue, room acoustics (affecting one's ability to hear others), seating arrangement (both within the choir and within the sections themselves), part assignment, but the most likely causes are inattentive minds. Singers may compensate for issues not related to the mind and the ear. While it may be generally accepted that hot, humid days affect pitch this does not necessarily mean that all singers will be affected, or that poor intonation must be accepted on such days. The conductor can be aware of the problem and do everything possible to neutralize it. A conductor's attitude at the first of a rehearsal on such a day, if enthusiastic, bright and cheerful, can provide an immediate deterrent to the problem. If, on the other hand, the conductor, by his attitude accepts the fact that the rehearsal will not be good, that intonation is likely to be poor, and, in fact is expected, there is little doubt that the choir will accept and display the same attitude. With more and more rehearsal rooms air-conditioned, the effects of the outside environment are greatly lessened, since part of the problem is psychological anyway. However, in situations where the rehearsal environment is not controlled, heat and humidity can be factors that lead to poor intonation during the rehearsal. This author has conducted hundreds of rehearsals in unairconditioned rooms and can attest that productive rehearsals con be held. The director can compensate for conditions by the pace of the rehearsal, resting as necessary and being careful how the choral pieces being rehearsed are sequenced. See the module on pacing a rehearsal for more information.

Most important to good pitch is one's mental concentration. Pitch is a problem mostly of the mind and ear. One's ability to perceive pitch has more bearing on intonation than any or all of the above factors. All of the above problems can usually be overcome by mental (or pitch) concentration. A lazy, inattentive mind causes most poor intonation. Most experienced choral conductors have had rehearsals on a dark, gloomy or hot, humid day that turned out to be excellent rehearsals with no pitch problems. One should not attribute all pitch problems to such factors, and in fact, one should concentrate exclusively on pitch concentration and correct vocal production. The latter can affect pitch even with excellent pitch concentration. A singer may be producing too heavy a tone, for example; heavier than his breath control is capable of supporting. It will cause pitch problems and the production must be corrected. The two most important factors then for good intonation are mental concentration and correct vocal production. The following discussion contains information that will aid in developing good mental (pitch) concentration.

Questions & Answers

show that the set of all natural number form semi group under the composition of addition
Nikhil Reply
what is the meaning
Dominic
explain and give four Example hyperbolic function
Lukman Reply
_3_2_1
felecia
⅗ ⅔½
felecia
_½+⅔-¾
felecia
The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
SABAL Reply
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
Pawel
2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
Pawel
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Ifeanyi
on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
Ifeanyi
combine like terms. x + x + 2 is same as 2x + 2
Pawel
x*x=2
felecia
2+2x=
felecia
×/×+9+6/1
Debbie
Q2 x+(x+2)+(x+4)=60 3x+6=60 3x+6-6=60-6 3x=54 3x/3=54/3 x=18 :. The numbers are 18,20 and 22
Naagmenkoma
Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
mariel Reply
Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
Pawel
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Harshika Reply
what is a solution set?
Harshika
find the subring of gaussian integers?
Rofiqul
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Shirley Reply
please can go further on polynomials quadratic
Abdullahi
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Mark
I need quadratic equation link to Alpa Beta
Abdullahi Reply
find the value of 2x=32
Felix Reply
divide by 2 on each side of the equal sign to solve for x
corri
X=16
Michael
Want to review on complex number 1.What are complex number 2.How to solve complex number problems.
Beyan
yes i wantt to review
Mark
16
Makan
x=16
Makan
use the y -intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
Only Reply
how do we prove the quadratic formular
Seidu Reply
please help me prove quadratic formula
Darius
hello, if you have a question about Algebra 2. I may be able to help. I am an Algebra 2 Teacher
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Seidu
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Opoku
what is math number
Tric Reply
4
Trista
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
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Mark
Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
Brenna
(61/11,41/11,−4/11)
Brenna
x=61/11 y=41/11 z=−4/11 x=61/11 y=41/11 z=-4/11
Brenna
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
x+2y-z=7
Sidiki
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
-1
Shedrak
A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
Kimberly Reply
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
Leonardo Reply
How do i figure this problem out.
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
s.
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Choral techniques. OpenStax CNX. Mar 08, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11191/1.1
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