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English home language

Grade 9

A true sense of freedom

Module 21

Direct and reported speech

Activity 1:

To identify and use direct and reported speech correctly

[lo 2.5]

  • Freedom of speech is a right that is rated very highly by teenagers, journalists and almost every other human being. When we repeat a message or give our opinion, it is our responsibility to speak clearly and correctly. There should be no ambiguity about what we have said.
  • Direct speech refers to the exact words of the speaker.

1. It is indicated by inverted commas, also known as quotation marks or speech marks.

2. It can be introduced by a verb such as ‘said’ or ‘asked’, but there are many others

3. If the spoken words are given first, then they are followed by a comma, exclamation mark or question mark, never a full stop.

4. The first word after the initial inverted comma begins with a capital letter, e.g.

Mary said, “Sir, I do not have my homework here,” or

“Sir, I do not have my homework here,” said Mary.

  • Reported speech

1. Has no inverted commas.

2. The introductory verbs are linked to the reported speech by ‘that’, ‘if’ and ‘whether’.

3. Pronouns change from 1 st or 2 nd Person to 3 rd Person.

4. If the introductory verb is in the past tense, then the reported speech must also be in

the past tense.

  1. Adverbs of time and place change and some adjectives change too.
  2. Commands and exclamations are different and need to be given

special attention, e.g.

“Children, sit down!” Mr Jacobs said.

Mr Jacobs told the children to sit down.

“Whee, this game is exciting,” the little girl shouted.

The little girl shouted excitedly that that game was exciting.

  • Read the following notes carefully. Using a telephone correctly is a basic business skill, which will help you in any profession.

Exercise on changing direct speech to reported speech

1. Charles said, “I saw Rosemary yesterday.” (3)

2. Jannie shouted, “Ouch, I burnt myself!” (4)

3. Mr Mbisi commanded, “Neil. Come here!” (1)

4. “Why can’t I go now?” asked Ingrid. (3)

5. Rafeeq said, “I feel so tense today.” (3)

Change REPORTED speech to DIRECT speech

6. The girl shouted happily that she had won.

7. Her mother asked her if that was the truth.

8. Thandi told Heinrich to do his homework before the next day.

9. The learner thanked the principal formally.

Activity 2:

To examine how language is used to construct gender, race, the environment, health etc. and to suggest ways of re-writing texts to create other possibilities

[lo 6.5.3]

exactly what you want to about people, whether it is a biased opinion or not. Biased words have connotations, which can sway us to believe a certain view. For example, a poet once said that an elderly woman could be described in three ways, namely:

that dear old soul

that old woman

that old witch

It is obvious from this example that we will think favourably of the woman in the first example, that the second statement is insulting and that the last statement gives a very negative impression.

We should not form any opinion about someone before we know that person. We should never pre-judge anyone. We should also remain impartial to any biased words until we can examine the facts critically. We should also reject any biased words which are hurtful or which discriminate against anyone. After all, we have the right to be treated equally.

Questions & Answers

what's economic development and growth
Popoola Reply
what do you understand by Ceteris Paribus?
Gabriel Reply
explain the uses of microeconomics
Nikita Reply
uses of microeconomics
Nikita
Adam Smith's definition of economics
Sylvia Reply
what is economic deficit
Amjad
this is a situation whereby a nation's outcome or available resources are not enough to the people thereby causing scarcity
Ariel
prices of Quality demanded is equal to Quality supplied
NABUBOLO Reply
it's quantity demand and quantity supplied that's called equilibrium
Romy
no
NABUBOLO
they deal With prices
NABUBOLO
define the elasticity
NABUBOLO
explain different types of elasticity
NABUBOLO
oops 😬 you are right you talk about quality I tell about quantity
Romy
elasticity is the measurement of the percentage change of one economic variable in response to a change in another
Romy
Cross Elasticity of Demand (XED) Income Elasticity of Demand (YED) Price Elasticity of Supply (PES)
Romy
anything else?
Romy
I need to know everything about theory of consumer behavior
Grace
How does one analyze a market where both demand and supply shift?
Gabriel Reply
That's equilibrium market
Ramon
but an equlibrum can appear twice on the same market... both in Movement along the Demand/supply curve of shift in the Curve
Gabriel
I Mean on the same curve..
Gabriel
how can consumer surplus be calculated
Franklyn
How can we analyze the effect on demand or supply if multiple factors are changing at the same time—say price rises and income falls? 
Gabriel Reply
because of fall of income, less will be demanded and much will be supply as a result of price rises. Rise in price always motivate new supplier to enter into the system. But it only possible in the short run
Kweku
yeah.. I think Ceteris Paribus is applied in this case
Gabriel
that is the law of Demand is Inversely related to the law of Supply... so that mean a positive change in demand may produce a negative return to supply I think.
Gabriel
what are the difference between Wants and Needs
Gabriel Reply
When the price is above the equilibrium, explain how market forces move the market price to equilibrium. Do the same when the price is below the equilibrium.
Gabriel
economic problems
Manishankar
yeah please Explain
Gabriel
I don't know this is my question
Manishankar
no it was a mistake...😂😂 can you explain how Wants and needs differs 😌
Gabriel
wants is what human desire but might not need them, human want are mostly articles of ostentatious while need is what human must get to live e.g inferior goods
Ramon
what's equilibrium price
james
equilibrium prices is a situation whereby the price of goods supplied equates to the demand
Ariel
this whereby the prices of quality demanded is equivalent to quality demanded
NABUBOLO
wants are numerous desire man that man can do without if not purchased e.g. cosmetic while need are desires that you cannot do without e.g. food
Franklyn
equilibrium price is that level of output were quantity demanded is equal to quantity supplied
Arthur
what are the importance of studying economics
Bherla Reply
To know if the country is growing or not through the country's GDP
Ariel
to manage our resources
TOBI
compare base years GDP and the current years GDP
james
To tell whether a country is growing there are many factors to be considered not necessarily only the GDP due to weaknesses of GDP approach
james
What is the law of demand
Yaw Reply
price increase demand decrease...price decrease demand increase
Mujahid
ıf the price increase the demand decrease and if the demand increase the price decrease
MUBARAK
all other things being equal, an increase in demand causes a decrease in supply and vice versa
SETHUAH
yah
Johnson
how is the economy of usa now
Johnson
What is demand
jude Reply
Demand is the quantity of goods and services a consumer is willing and able to purchase at various prices over a given period of time.
Yaw
yea
SETHUAH
Okay congratulations I'll join you guys later .
Aj
yes
MUBARAK
demand is the quantity and quality of goods and services a consumer is willingly and able to purchase at a particular price over a given period of time.
TOBI
calculate elasticity of income exercises
HABANABAKIZE Reply
If potatoes cost Jane $1 per kilogram and she has $5 that could possibly spend on potatoes or other items. If she feels that the first kilogram of potatoes is worth $1.50, the second kilogram is worth$1.14, the third is worth $1.05 and subsequent kilograms are worth $0.30, how many kilograms of potatoes will she purchase? What if she only had $2 to spend?
Susan Reply
cause of poverty in urban
DAVY Reply
QI: (A) Asume the following cost data are for a purely competitive producer: At a product price Of $56. will this firm produce in the short run? Why Why not? If it is preferable to produce, what will be the profit-maximizing Or loss-minimizing Output? Explain. What economic profit or loss will the
Falak Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, English home language grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11060/1.1
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