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English home language

Grade 9

A true sense of freedom

Module 21

Direct and reported speech

Activity 1:

To identify and use direct and reported speech correctly

[lo 2.5]

  • Freedom of speech is a right that is rated very highly by teenagers, journalists and almost every other human being. When we repeat a message or give our opinion, it is our responsibility to speak clearly and correctly. There should be no ambiguity about what we have said.
  • Direct speech refers to the exact words of the speaker.

1. It is indicated by inverted commas, also known as quotation marks or speech marks.

2. It can be introduced by a verb such as ‘said’ or ‘asked’, but there are many others

3. If the spoken words are given first, then they are followed by a comma, exclamation mark or question mark, never a full stop.

4. The first word after the initial inverted comma begins with a capital letter, e.g.

Mary said, “Sir, I do not have my homework here,” or

“Sir, I do not have my homework here,” said Mary.

  • Reported speech

1. Has no inverted commas.

2. The introductory verbs are linked to the reported speech by ‘that’, ‘if’ and ‘whether’.

3. Pronouns change from 1 st or 2 nd Person to 3 rd Person.

4. If the introductory verb is in the past tense, then the reported speech must also be in

the past tense.

  1. Adverbs of time and place change and some adjectives change too.
  2. Commands and exclamations are different and need to be given

special attention, e.g.

“Children, sit down!” Mr Jacobs said.

Mr Jacobs told the children to sit down.

“Whee, this game is exciting,” the little girl shouted.

The little girl shouted excitedly that that game was exciting.

  • Read the following notes carefully. Using a telephone correctly is a basic business skill, which will help you in any profession.

Exercise on changing direct speech to reported speech

1. Charles said, “I saw Rosemary yesterday.” (3)

2. Jannie shouted, “Ouch, I burnt myself!” (4)

3. Mr Mbisi commanded, “Neil. Come here!” (1)

4. “Why can’t I go now?” asked Ingrid. (3)

5. Rafeeq said, “I feel so tense today.” (3)

Change REPORTED speech to DIRECT speech

6. The girl shouted happily that she had won.

7. Her mother asked her if that was the truth.

8. Thandi told Heinrich to do his homework before the next day.

9. The learner thanked the principal formally.

Activity 2:

To examine how language is used to construct gender, race, the environment, health etc. and to suggest ways of re-writing texts to create other possibilities

[lo 6.5.3]

exactly what you want to about people, whether it is a biased opinion or not. Biased words have connotations, which can sway us to believe a certain view. For example, a poet once said that an elderly woman could be described in three ways, namely:

that dear old soul

that old woman

that old witch

It is obvious from this example that we will think favourably of the woman in the first example, that the second statement is insulting and that the last statement gives a very negative impression.

We should not form any opinion about someone before we know that person. We should never pre-judge anyone. We should also remain impartial to any biased words until we can examine the facts critically. We should also reject any biased words which are hurtful or which discriminate against anyone. After all, we have the right to be treated equally.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, English home language grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11060/1.1
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