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English home language

Grade 6

Module 17

Direct and indirect speech

(The actual words a person says/speaks)

  • Study the examples below.

These examples demonstrate two ways of writing direct speech:

Many court cases involving young children collapse because the youngsters are unable to testify competently in the intimidating surroundings of a court set-up.

Even with the introduction of closed circuit cameras, which relay testimony from a room adjacent to the court, the thought of testifying to a courtroom filled with official-looking adults in black Batman-like garb is daunting to many minors.

At Cape Town’s Tygerberg Hospital, the TygerBear Social Work Unit for Traumatised Children aims to assist children in making the court experience less frightening, whether they’re witnesses or victims.

Here young children who have to testify in special courts for sexual offences involving minors and older ones who testify in open court are taught to view their participation in a trial as helpful to the judicial process.

In the colourful space, which is home to the unit, social workers use teddy bears, sketches, puppets and other tools to introduce the legal system to the children.

And through this play therapy children become more and more accustomed to what they at first considered a harrowing experience.

Social worker Judith Booysen said children often felt as if they were the guilty parties when questioned by lawyers.

“It is important for children to know that their evidence is part of the trial and whatever they say will not be the only factor deciding the outcome of the case. They are not responsible for the sentence handed down by the court.

“They’re easily frightened by official-looking adults who speak a language (legalese) they don’t understand.

“This, together with questions asked by the defence, can break down their testimony and they start answering incorrectly because they’re frightened.”

Children under 18 in need of such court preparation are referred to the unit by public prosecutors.

“We receive about 50 referrals for court preparation a month. Children are taught that court staff have a job to do and by testifying the children will help them with that job.

“We also empower them to speak up in court and to tell the facts as they know them,” Booysen said.

Social workers use sketches and puppetry to familiarise children with the inside of the court and where each official sits and what their roles are.

“This already makes the child feel more comfortable.”

She said that because social workers liased with the police and therefore knew the facts of each child’s case, they knew how to deal with each particular child.

“We don’t tell them what to say. We rather encourage them to tell the truth.

“Our programme is very successful and it has been proven that a child can’t go to court unprepared. It is intimidating enough for an adult to testify,” Booysen said.

The unit also runs a group court preparation programme.

The unit’s head, Manette de Jager, said: “We desperately need sponsorship to sustain the programme. Some of the children don’t have money for transport and we have to acquire new equipment all the time.”

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
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Source:  OpenStax, English home language grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 07, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10997/1.1
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