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British isles


In the early century, the Britons of Strathclyde, Wales and Cornwall were all separated by the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. (Ref. 136 ) This was a period of adjustment under the Angles and the Saxons, the latter being the most cruel of the Germanic tribes.

They had probably incorporated the Jutes and Angles before the general exodus from Schleswig-Holstein. The Celtic Britons continued resistance on the periphery.

In 655 the Northumbrians regained leadership over Mercia, which had been the chief power from 642 on, and then the Northumbrians reduced the Britons (then all were called "Welsh") in Strathclyde to bondage as well as the Picts and Scots. The bond was short lived though as the latter quickly broke loose and by 679 Northumbria was again subservient to Mercia. (Ref. 137 ) Augustine became the first Archbishop of Canterbury in A.D. 601 and his early achievements were great. After the novelty of the new religion had worn off, however, many English leaders returned to their old ways so that by 616 even the church in Kent was in danger of extinction. (Ref. 43 ) Papal Christianity spread into north England through the increasing power of Edwin, King of East Anglia. In 664, after a conference of English (papal) and Briton (Celtic) bishops at the Synod of Whitby, most of the island became Romanized Christian but Ireland remained aloof. Two conferences of the Roman St. Augustine and his Saxon convert Christians with the bishops of the "Far Western Christianity" of Ireland, failed, and the two camps remained enemies. After that Synod a severe epidemic occurred, the nature of which is unknown. (Ref. 140 ) Bede recorded four epidemic pestilences in England within the 20 years from 664 to 683.

Of incidental interest is the fact that there was no wheel-turned pottery (Anglo-Saxon) in England before A.D. 675. (Ref. 18 )


The Scots, originally from Ireland, as we have previously noted, pushed their way up the Great Glen and approached Iverness before they were finally defeated by the Picts. In the south the Angles were pushing north from England with both cavalry and infantry but the Picts, under Bridei, were temporarily united and able to drive them back in the battle of Nechtansmere in 685. (Ref. 170 , 222 )


At this time the Irish were materially and politically more backward than the English but in a special cultural way they were the most advanced of all peoples north of the Pyrenees and the Alps. Both Gallic and British scholars came to Ireland to escape the Germanic invasions. Ireland was never invaded by these tribes and was never Romanized. Its Christianity was a separate brand which was mentioned above as the Far Western Christianity (2) and which maintained an independent existence and development for many hundreds of years, reaching its apogee in the 6th and 7th centuries.

As in England the yellow plague hit Ireland in 664. Although we mentioned Irish exploration of the Faroe Islands in a previous chapter, some authorities believe that they did not discover these islands until about 690.

Questions & Answers

I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
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How can I make nanorobot?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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