<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

France and netherland and belgium

We have seen above (See ITALY) that Stilicho, in effect King of Italy, withdrew troops from the Rhine to fight various Germanic tribes in central Europe and then the Marcomanni-Quadi group, collectively known as Suevi, easily crossed the defenseless, frozen Rhine into France. (Ref. 137 ) Meanwhile the Franks had settled on the western slope of the Rhine, had captured Cologne and were in Franconia on the east. By 430 Gaul was about half Frankish and half Gothic and Celtic, and it was the most prosperous and intellectually advanced of the western provinces. The agriculture of the Germanic tribes was better suited to that climate than the Roman Mediterranean style of agriculture so a German style of life took its place.

As recorded above, in A.D. 451 Attila and his German auxiliaries, possibly at the request of Gaeseric

Maenchen-Helfen (Ref. 127 ) says this idea is "grotesque" (Page 130) and says the reason Attila went into Gaul instead of Italy is unknown
, the Vandal king, moved far into France to Orleans and after a battle near by against a mixture of Burgundians, Romans, Franks and Visigoths, Attila finally withdrew to Hungary after massive casualties had been experienced by both sides. Only the Salian Franks in the northeast of France, escaped the Huns domination in the first surge. In 470 the Visigoths again expanded to the Loire and the Rhone and then again conquered Spain, except for a few northern areas, as we have mentioned above. Clovis started his control of the Franks by conquest in 481 and his conversion to Christianity occurred in 496. The Celts on the west side of the Rhine had been exposed to this religion for a long period and Clovis' conversion only solidified his control over them. Although his original territory included only the northern areas about Cologne, Hesse, Tournai, Cambrai and Treier, he soon destroyed other chieftains of the Rhine, Moselle and Meuse valleys. His final mastery over all Gaul began with his defeat of Syagrius, "King of the Romans" at Soissons in 486 and he then became truly "King of the Franks"- (Ref. 137 , 8 )



Roman evacuation of England was probably complete by 407, and in 410 the Roman Emperor Honorius wrote to the leaders of British towns telling them to look after their own defence. This was almost simultaneous with the revolt of peasants, rampant disease and raids by Picts, Irish, Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. (Ref. 136 ) In the 420s Vortigern, one of the British tyrants, rose some in power and used the previously tried Roman policy of using German mercenaries to swell his armies. Others soon did likewise and the fate of Celtic England was probably sealed. There was a continuous influx of new Saxon immigrants and from 440 on they occupied the eastern and southern coastal areas of Essex, Kent and Sussex and controlled the mouth of the Thames. The Angles came from Slesvig and brought with them to England a knowledge of Nordic mythology, as found in the "Song of Beoweulf ". In the southwest the Britons kept out the Saxons, under the leadership of King Ambrosius and the shadowy King Arthur. In A. D. 500 these Britons won a pitched battle at Mount Badon, somewhere in the southwest. (Ref. 43 ) Some Britons escaped the Germans by going to the Brest peninsula of France, subsequently becoming known as Bretons. (Ref. 137 , 222 )

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Difference between extinct and extici spicies
Amanpreet Reply
in a comparison of the stages of meiosis to the stage of mitosis, which stages are unique to meiosis and which stages have the same event in botg meiosis and mitosis
Leah Reply
Researchers demonstrated that the hippocampus functions in memory processing by creating lesions in the hippocampi of rats, which resulted in ________.
Mapo Reply
The formulation of new memories is sometimes called ________, and the process of bringing up old memories is called ________.
Mapo Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A comprehensive outline of world history' conversation and receive update notifications?