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NOTE: Insert FRANCE IN 1180

Of 15 universities established in France in the Middle Ages, only two allowed the study of medicine - Montpellier and later the University of Paris. After 1180, Jews and Arabs could be admitted to Montpellier. (Ref. 125)

The netherlands and belgium

We have previously noted that in this century commercial development in Italy took a quantum jump. A secondary commercial center appeared in the Low Countries where the navigable Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt rivers converge. Overland portage routes linked these channels to Italy and exchanges between the two centers occurred regularly at great fairs in Champagne. (Ref. 279) The independent area of Flanders had the great, busy port of Bruges, which was the center of the Hanseatic League, an alliance of merchants from ports all across the North and Baltic seas. It was designed to promote member cooperation against external competition and pirates, to arrange for congenial association of merchants away from home and to protect against fluctuating currencies, defaulting debtors and feudal tools. The League had a detailed Code of Maritime regulations and initially, at least, was an agent of civilization. Merchants of Flanders brought English wool to Flemish weavers and then sold the cloth throughout the north, soon dominating all this north trade. It is unfortunate that eventually the league became an oppressor as well as a defender of rights. (Ref. 49, 137)

British isles


The Thames at London was already bordered by a continuous line of docks for the business of exporting wool, cloth and tin and importing such things as Arabian spices, Chinese silks, Russian furs, and French wines. Iron was mined and this necessitated a revival of coal mining to process the metal. While prior to the Norman conquest all English wool had been taken to Flanders for weaving, now Flemish artisans went to England and taught the English how to use wool, so that it eventually became a foundation of British wealth. Up until the middle of the 12th century Anglo-Saxon (Old English) was the language of England; then Middle English developed. (Ref. 213)

The early kings of this century - Henry I (the last Norman), Stephen and the six month queen, Matilda, were of little consequence to history. Near the middle of the era a six year civil war broke out and as a result Henry II of the Plantagenet line became king (1154). The name Plantagenet comes from "Planta Genesta", the broom, which was the emblem of the house of Henry Fitz-Empress of Angevin. Henry II, as noted above in the discussion of France in this century, married the heiress of Aquitane and thus acquired the Norman Angevin and Aquitanian fiefs on the continent. He became one of England's greatest kings, known for establishing the jurisdiction of the secular courts over the clerical and thus liberating English law from feudal and ecclesiastical limitations. He quarreled with his former friend, Thomas Becket, the archbishop of Canterbury, as the latter began to champion church against crown. Killed by the king's knights, Becket became a martyr and the king lost the people's confidence. Nevertheless, his reign marked the beginning of the English Common Law and the beginnings of trial by jury. Jurymen were witnesses as well as judges of the fact, picked because they were the most likely to know the facts. (Ref. 49, 137)

Questions & Answers

what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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