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NOTE: Insert FRANCE IN 1180

Of 15 universities established in France in the Middle Ages, only two allowed the study of medicine - Montpellier and later the University of Paris. After 1180, Jews and Arabs could be admitted to Montpellier. (Ref. 125)

The netherlands and belgium

We have previously noted that in this century commercial development in Italy took a quantum jump. A secondary commercial center appeared in the Low Countries where the navigable Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt rivers converge. Overland portage routes linked these channels to Italy and exchanges between the two centers occurred regularly at great fairs in Champagne. (Ref. 279) The independent area of Flanders had the great, busy port of Bruges, which was the center of the Hanseatic League, an alliance of merchants from ports all across the North and Baltic seas. It was designed to promote member cooperation against external competition and pirates, to arrange for congenial association of merchants away from home and to protect against fluctuating currencies, defaulting debtors and feudal tools. The League had a detailed Code of Maritime regulations and initially, at least, was an agent of civilization. Merchants of Flanders brought English wool to Flemish weavers and then sold the cloth throughout the north, soon dominating all this north trade. It is unfortunate that eventually the league became an oppressor as well as a defender of rights. (Ref. 49, 137)

British isles

England

The Thames at London was already bordered by a continuous line of docks for the business of exporting wool, cloth and tin and importing such things as Arabian spices, Chinese silks, Russian furs, and French wines. Iron was mined and this necessitated a revival of coal mining to process the metal. While prior to the Norman conquest all English wool had been taken to Flanders for weaving, now Flemish artisans went to England and taught the English how to use wool, so that it eventually became a foundation of British wealth. Up until the middle of the 12th century Anglo-Saxon (Old English) was the language of England; then Middle English developed. (Ref. 213)

The early kings of this century - Henry I (the last Norman), Stephen and the six month queen, Matilda, were of little consequence to history. Near the middle of the era a six year civil war broke out and as a result Henry II of the Plantagenet line became king (1154). The name Plantagenet comes from "Planta Genesta", the broom, which was the emblem of the house of Henry Fitz-Empress of Angevin. Henry II, as noted above in the discussion of France in this century, married the heiress of Aquitane and thus acquired the Norman Angevin and Aquitanian fiefs on the continent. He became one of England's greatest kings, known for establishing the jurisdiction of the secular courts over the clerical and thus liberating English law from feudal and ecclesiastical limitations. He quarreled with his former friend, Thomas Becket, the archbishop of Canterbury, as the latter began to champion church against crown. Killed by the king's knights, Becket became a martyr and the king lost the people's confidence. Nevertheless, his reign marked the beginning of the English Common Law and the beginnings of trial by jury. Jurymen were witnesses as well as judges of the fact, picked because they were the most likely to know the facts. (Ref. 49, 137)

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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