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Keyworth’s claim that the Reagan administration and Congress were generous to science was echoed by the external community, as evidenced by a July 3, 1987, Science article entitled, “Science Budgets Fare Well in House Action.” “News and Comment,” Science 237 (July 3, 1987), 21. This trend for basic research persisted until politically unacceptable federal deficits forced the administration and Congress to reexamine their priorities, beginning with the president’s proposed fiscal year 1988 budget. Irwin Goodwin, “Physicists Dismayed by NSF’s Many Cuts in Congress’s Hard-Times 1988 Budget," Physics Today (March 1988), 41-44.

Support for the social sciences in Reagan’s first budge request, however, was drastically reduced, and NSF’s science education budget almost entirely eliminated. In response, the National Science Board, as NSF’s policy-making and governing body, invoked a rarely used provision of the National Science Foundation Act of 1950 by convening a special commission to examine the broad science education issue. This commission lent support to subsequent congressional restoration of science education through creation of NSF’s Directorate for Education and Human Resources. All 435 members of the House of Representatives, after all, had schoolteachers in their districts, many of whom had profited from programs the Reagan administration was proposing to cut. Congress voted to restore funding for science education to NSF, and the administration had no choice but to comply. From then on, science education would be an integral component of U.S. science policy.

Engineering research centers

The relatively modest university-industry cooperative research programs initiated by NSF in 1978 proved to be so well received that in 1984, the agency initiated its Engineering Research Centers program, which provided substantial support to a small number of universities or university consortia to undertake large, long-term research programs in cooperation with industry. In 1986, NSF expanded the centers concept again, creating a parallel Science and Technology Centers program.

The academic community was initially unhappy with these programs, contending that NSF ought to confine its support to small groups of academic investigators for whom the costs of the new programs would seriously reduce available funding. But NSF Director Erich Bloch argued persuasively that science had changed drastically since Science—the Endless Frontier was released in 1945. Many contemporary science and engineering problems, he argued, could be addressed only by large, interdisciplinary groups with guaranteed long-term support. Further, it could no longer be assumed that industry would automatically pick up and develop the results of university basic research. Industry needed direct involvement with large, complex, university-based research programs that would, in turn, sensitize university researchers and students to industry’s needs. He also urged professional science and engineering societies to set their priorities for large-scale programs rather than having NSF and other science-related agencies set them by default. Irwin Goodwin, “Erich Bloch: on Changing Times and Angry Scientists at NSF,” Physics Today (August 1988), 47-52.

Questions & Answers

List and explain four factors of production
Vuyo Reply
capital labour entrepreneur natural resources
Thembi
What is supply
Ogodo Reply
when the supply decreases demand also decreases
Thembi
types of demand and the explanation
akin Reply
what is demand
akin Reply
other things remaining same if demend is increases supply is also decrease and if demend is decrease supply is also increases is called the demand
Mian
if the demand increase supply also increases
Thembi
you are wrong this is the law of demand and not the definition
Tarasum
Demand is the willingness of buy and ability to buy in a specific time period in specific place. Mian you are saying law of demand but not in proper way. you have to keep studying more. because its very basic things in Economics.
Hamza
Demand is the price of Quantity goods and services in which consumer's are willing and able to offer at a price in the market over a period of time
Umar
Demand is the quantity of goods and services that the consumer are willing and able to buy at a alternative prices over a given period of time. But mind you demand is quite different from need and want.
Tarasum
Demand can be defined as the graphical representation between price&demand
alkasim
sorry demand is nt a graphical representation between price and quantity demand but instead that is demand curve.
Ebrima
Demand is the willingness and ability of a consumer to buy a quantity of a good over a given period of time assuming all other things remain constant.
Vedaant
what is commercialization?
Doris Reply
How to talk loan for bank?
Alfred Reply
what is the meaning of gpa?
Ritisha Reply
Answer: GPA stands for Grade Point Average. It is a standard way of measuring academic achievement in the U.S. Basically, it goes as follows: Each course is given a certain number of "units" or "credits", depending on the content of the course.
Yusuf
what is small and Microbuisenes
tadesse Reply
What is fiscal policy
Dansofo
Who is the funder of Economic
Dansofo
founder , that is Adam Smith
Daniel
what is model
Daniel Reply
The wealth of Nations
Yusuf Reply
the wealth of nations, is it the first?
Umar
Yes very sure it was released in 1759
Yusuf
thank you Yusuf.
Umar
then when did he died?
Umar
17 July 1790 Born: 16 June 1723, Kirkcaldy, United Kingdom Place of death: Panmure House, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Yusuf
1790
Yusuf
that's my today questions, thank you Yusuf it's bed time see u after.
Umar
what is fiscal policy
kemigisha Reply
what's mode?
Umar Reply
mode is the highest occurring frequency in a distribution
Bola
mode is the most commonly occurring item in a set of data.
Umar
Please, what is the difference between monopoly and monopsony?
Olaleye Reply
is there monopsony word?
Umar
I have no idea though
Umar
please, in which year Adam smith was born?
Umar
monopsony is when there's only one buyer while monopoly is when there's only one producer.
Bola
who have idea on Banter
Ibrahim
like trade by barter?
Bola
Monopoly is when there's excessively one seller and there is no entry in the market while monopsony is when there is one buyer
kemigisha
Adam smith was born in 1723
Bola
 (uncountable) Good humoured, playful, typically spontaneous conversation. verb (intransitive) To engage in banter or playful conversation. (intransitive) To play or do something amusing. (transitive) To tease mildly.
Umar
which book Adam smith published first? the first book of Adam smith pls.
Umar
wealth on nation, 1776
Daniel
what is market power and how can it affect an economy?
Gab Reply
market power:- where a firm is said to be a price setter.market power benefits the powerful at the expense of others.
Umar
Market power refers to the ability of a firm (or group of firms) to raise and maintain price above the level that would prevail under competition is referred to as market or monopoly power. The exercise of market power leads to reduced output and loss of economic welfare
Kartheek
find information about the national budget
Molahlegi
three branches of economics in which tourism is likely to figure
Makgotso Reply
What are those three branches?
IlRegno
While the American heart association suggests that meditation might be used in conjunction with more traditional treatments as a way to manage hypertension
Beverly Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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