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Keyworth’s claim that the Reagan administration and Congress were generous to science was echoed by the external community, as evidenced by a July 3, 1987, Science article entitled, “Science Budgets Fare Well in House Action.” “News and Comment,” Science 237 (July 3, 1987), 21. This trend for basic research persisted until politically unacceptable federal deficits forced the administration and Congress to reexamine their priorities, beginning with the president’s proposed fiscal year 1988 budget. Irwin Goodwin, “Physicists Dismayed by NSF’s Many Cuts in Congress’s Hard-Times 1988 Budget," Physics Today (March 1988), 41-44.

Support for the social sciences in Reagan’s first budge request, however, was drastically reduced, and NSF’s science education budget almost entirely eliminated. In response, the National Science Board, as NSF’s policy-making and governing body, invoked a rarely used provision of the National Science Foundation Act of 1950 by convening a special commission to examine the broad science education issue. This commission lent support to subsequent congressional restoration of science education through creation of NSF’s Directorate for Education and Human Resources. All 435 members of the House of Representatives, after all, had schoolteachers in their districts, many of whom had profited from programs the Reagan administration was proposing to cut. Congress voted to restore funding for science education to NSF, and the administration had no choice but to comply. From then on, science education would be an integral component of U.S. science policy.

Engineering research centers

The relatively modest university-industry cooperative research programs initiated by NSF in 1978 proved to be so well received that in 1984, the agency initiated its Engineering Research Centers program, which provided substantial support to a small number of universities or university consortia to undertake large, long-term research programs in cooperation with industry. In 1986, NSF expanded the centers concept again, creating a parallel Science and Technology Centers program.

The academic community was initially unhappy with these programs, contending that NSF ought to confine its support to small groups of academic investigators for whom the costs of the new programs would seriously reduce available funding. But NSF Director Erich Bloch argued persuasively that science had changed drastically since Science—the Endless Frontier was released in 1945. Many contemporary science and engineering problems, he argued, could be addressed only by large, interdisciplinary groups with guaranteed long-term support. Further, it could no longer be assumed that industry would automatically pick up and develop the results of university basic research. Industry needed direct involvement with large, complex, university-based research programs that would, in turn, sensitize university researchers and students to industry’s needs. He also urged professional science and engineering societies to set their priorities for large-scale programs rather than having NSF and other science-related agencies set them by default. Irwin Goodwin, “Erich Bloch: on Changing Times and Angry Scientists at NSF,” Physics Today (August 1988), 47-52.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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