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More generally, reliance on nuclear power will be waning notably over the next 25 years even though China and Britain are continuing to build reactors. Almost 200 nuclear reactors are due to be shut down by 2040, according to the annual report of the International Energy Agency. The plans for reactor shutdowns over the next 25 years contrast sharply with that of the period 1974-2014, when only 10 reactors were decommissioned.

We lack the space to discuss in detail many of these very interesting alternative energy resources. It can be said, though, with a very high degree of assurance, that ethanol from corn or almost any food crop is not an answer to any intelligent question. Nor is biodiesel, except for that made by using algae. As we noted before: ethanol from corn (as in U.S.) involves very little if any energy gain and precious little environmental gain. Making ethanol itself requires lots of energy. Also a gallon of ethanol is less useful in internal combustion engines. This is because Ethanol is a 2-carbon molecule. Gasoline is a long-chained molecule with almost 50% higher energy content.

To replace half of diesel fuel use in U.S. with biodiesel would require many millions of acres of cultivation of corn in U.S. and Brazil. The truth is, the negative environmental consequences of ethanol from corn were never considered by Congress in the rush to subsidize ethanol. Example: pouring on fertilizer in Iowa to grow more corn for ethanol has resulted in more pollution of many rivers especially those draining into the Gulf of Mexico.

Perspectives on energy worldwide

- The nations that consume the most energy per capita are #1 Qatar, #2 Iceland and #3, the U.S.

- The nations that have the lowest per capita energy consumption are #1 Bangladesh and #2 Eritrea. All of the lowest 10 are very poor.

- The countries with the highest total energy consumption are #1 the U.S.and #2 China, and Chinese consumption is likely to surpass the U.S. by 2015.

- The country with the highest gasoline prices is Eritrea.

- The nations with lowest gasoline prices are #1 Venezuela and #2 Iran.

- The U.S. state with the most installed wind capacity is Texas with double the capacity of California, in second place.

Energy utilization and energy subsidies in emerging nations

Subsidies to fossil fuel use in many emerging countries are unusually high, leading to extraordinary rates of growth in energy consumption heavy stress on government budgets. And, according to one estimate, subsidies on energy use worldwide were responsible for 36% of global carbon emissions between 1980 and 2010. Pump Aligning , Economist , January 17, 2015, p.70. The subsidies often lead to unexpected outcomes. Over the past 30 years, Indonesia among many other emerging nations has used heavy subsidies on gasoline, diesel fuel and kerosene. The subsidies resulted in artificially low domestic prices for these products, so that consumption grew at very rapid rates. Indonesia in the 70s, 80s and 90s was a major oil exporter, and a charter member of OPEC, dating back to the mid-sixties. By 2012, Indonesia was, as a result of very low prices for domestic energy use, was a net oil importer , and no longer a member of OPEC.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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