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Left to right: White House Economic Advisor Lawrence Summers, Jane Lubchenco, and Steven Chu at the National Academy, February 27, 2009. Courtesy of the National Academy of Sciences.

The american recovery and reinvestment act

On February 17, 2009, Obama signed into law the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (commonly known as the stimulus package). The approximately $800 billion package contained more than $30 billion for science and technology, with investments in clean energy, education, basic research, health care, broadband communications, infrastructure, and medical discoveries. Specific R&D increases included:

  • National Science Foundation: $3 billion, including $2.5 billion for research and related activities, $400 million for major research equipment and facilities, and $100 million for improving instruction in science, math and engineering.
  • National Institutes of Health: $10 billion, including $1.3 billion for the National Center for Research Resources ($1 billion of this for competitive awards, construction and renovation of extramural research facilities); $8.2 billion to the Office of the Director ($7.4 billion for Institutes and Centers and Common Fund); and $500 million for repair and improvement of NIH buildings and facilities.
  • Department of Energy: $0.4 billion, including $16.8 million for energy efficiency, renewable energy sources and batteries, and $1.6 million for science programs.
  • ARPA-E: $400 million for high-risk, high-payoff research into energy sources and energy efficiency.
  • NASA: $1 billion, including $400 million for science, $150 million for aeronautics, and $400 million for exploration.
  • National Institute of Standards and Technology: $600 million, including $220 million for research, competitive grants fellowships and equipment, and $360 million for maintenance and construction of NIST facilities.
  • U.S. Geological Survey: $140 million for surveys, investigations and research.
  • Department of Defense: $300 million for research, testing and evaluation.

Energy initiatives

The development of clean, alternative, sustainable energy sources was accorded an early high priority by the Obama administration. To this end, solicitation for ARPA-E’s first round of funding awards was made in April 2009; the following October, Secretary of Energy Steven Chu announced the first thirty-seven awards. The lead researchers were in seventeen states, 43 percent of the awardees were small businesses, 35 percent were educational institutions, and 19 percent were large corporations. American Institute of Physics Bulletin of Science Policy News (November 9, 2009). That December, Chu announced a second round of awards in three categories: Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies; Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation; and Electrofuels. Ibid., December 10, 2009. Chu also announced a new ARPA-E fellowship program to enable qualified scientists and engineers to spend up to two years working in relevant federal agencies.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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