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Left to right: White House Economic Advisor Lawrence Summers, Jane Lubchenco, and Steven Chu at the National Academy, February 27, 2009. Courtesy of the National Academy of Sciences.

The american recovery and reinvestment act

On February 17, 2009, Obama signed into law the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (commonly known as the stimulus package). The approximately $800 billion package contained more than $30 billion for science and technology, with investments in clean energy, education, basic research, health care, broadband communications, infrastructure, and medical discoveries. Specific R&D increases included:

  • National Science Foundation: $3 billion, including $2.5 billion for research and related activities, $400 million for major research equipment and facilities, and $100 million for improving instruction in science, math and engineering.
  • National Institutes of Health: $10 billion, including $1.3 billion for the National Center for Research Resources ($1 billion of this for competitive awards, construction and renovation of extramural research facilities); $8.2 billion to the Office of the Director ($7.4 billion for Institutes and Centers and Common Fund); and $500 million for repair and improvement of NIH buildings and facilities.
  • Department of Energy: $0.4 billion, including $16.8 million for energy efficiency, renewable energy sources and batteries, and $1.6 million for science programs.
  • ARPA-E: $400 million for high-risk, high-payoff research into energy sources and energy efficiency.
  • NASA: $1 billion, including $400 million for science, $150 million for aeronautics, and $400 million for exploration.
  • National Institute of Standards and Technology: $600 million, including $220 million for research, competitive grants fellowships and equipment, and $360 million for maintenance and construction of NIST facilities.
  • U.S. Geological Survey: $140 million for surveys, investigations and research.
  • Department of Defense: $300 million for research, testing and evaluation.

Energy initiatives

The development of clean, alternative, sustainable energy sources was accorded an early high priority by the Obama administration. To this end, solicitation for ARPA-E’s first round of funding awards was made in April 2009; the following October, Secretary of Energy Steven Chu announced the first thirty-seven awards. The lead researchers were in seventeen states, 43 percent of the awardees were small businesses, 35 percent were educational institutions, and 19 percent were large corporations. American Institute of Physics Bulletin of Science Policy News (November 9, 2009). That December, Chu announced a second round of awards in three categories: Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies; Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation; and Electrofuels. Ibid., December 10, 2009. Chu also announced a new ARPA-E fellowship program to enable qualified scientists and engineers to spend up to two years working in relevant federal agencies.

Questions & Answers

what are two classical macroeconomics and what're their theories say about their equations?
what is the formula for calculating elasticity
aza Reply
what is elasticity of demand?
Rita Reply
Causes of economic growth
pierre Reply
What is elasticity of demand
What are the causes of economic growth
economic growth, establishment of industry, encourage of investor's, farm productivities, creation of institutions, construction of good road etc
elasticity of demand can be said to be the responsiveness of demand to a change in prices
impact of collusion in the economy referring to inefficiencies illustrated by means of graph
nondumiso Reply
The Factor price will determine the choice of techniques to produce.Expantiate
what is elasticity of demand?
Etta Reply
state and explain two types of demand
Institution involved in money market
Gande Reply
what is Economics
Kwame Reply
Economic is the study of scarcity
Economics is the study of a lot of things. It is split up into two areas of study, Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. Microeconomics is the study of an individual's choices in the economy and Macroeconomics is the study of the economy as a whole.
Economics is a science that studies human scarcity
What is Equilibrium price?
Equilibrium is the market clearing price. The point at which quantity demanded equals quantity supplied. The point at which the supply and demand curves intersect.
Equilibrium price*
Refers to the study of how producers use limited resources to satisfy human unlimited wants
why is economics important
Derrick Reply
What will you do as a consumer if you are not at equilibrium?
chukwu Reply
am new I will like to know about the graph relationship
Gloria Reply
comment on WTO principle on trading system. trade without discrimination
Omben Reply
optimize z=f(x,y)=6x²-9x-3xy-7y+5y²
Alex Reply
What is an indifference curve?
layla Reply
different levels of utilities of a person in a given set of bundles of goods
identify and quantify five social costs and social benefits of building a school
Mokgobo Reply
identify and quantity five social costs and social benefits of building a hospital
short run vs long run
state the law of diminishing return?
The Law of Diminishing (Marginal) Returns simply states that at some point in time a business/operation/etc.'s increased productivity will begin to decline.
For example, if a small pizza shop currently has 3 workers in the kitchen at any given time,and hiring 1 more worker will increase productivity, at some number of workers hired will the business see a decrease in productivity because the capital resources that the pizza shop has is not infinite.
Five social benefits of building a hospital, in my opinion and depending on where it's built, would be 1) Increased care for neighboring residents, 2) Potential jobs for individuals, 3) May decrease the travel time residents need to endure in order to reach the nearest hospital
4) May create work-study programs for individuals who aspire to be future Doctors, Nurses, Physicians, etc. 5) Assuming there are local pharmaceutical businesses nearby, the hospital may decide to purchase supplies local, increasing the business' sales. Thus, generating more income.
5 costs of building a hospital would be 1) Increased noise and waste pollution from service vehicles and hospital visitors, 2) May require large amounts of space, possibly jeopardizing nearby animal habitats, 3) May see an increase in traffic and possibly car accidents from frantic individuals
racing to see their injured friends, family members, etc. 4) Constructing a hospital and hiring staff is very expensive 5) To use funds, private or public, to finance the construction of a hospital cannot be used to fund any other projects. (The concept of opportunity costs.)
what is meant by inteference with the price mechanism operation?
We use a Supply and Demand graph to illustrate at what price level will the market for a certain good or service be at equilibrium. If the price for a good or service is set too high, consumers will be less inclined to buy that product Thus, creating a surplus.
This surplus will eventually drive the price back down to it's equilibrium point. Similarly, if a price for a good or service is set too low, individuals would be more inclined to buy more of a certain product, creating a shortage. This shortage will cause sellers to drive the price back up to the
equilibrium point.
in a comparison of the stages of meiosis to the stage of mitosis, which stages are unique to meiosis and which stages have the same event in botg meiosis and mitosis
Leah Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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