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This illustration shows the molecular structure of NAD^{+} and NADH. Both compounds are composed of an adenine nucleotide and a nicotinamide nucleotide, which bond together to form a dinucleotide. The nicotinamide nucleotide is at the 5' end, and the adenine nucleotide is at the 3’ end. Nicotinamide is a nitrogenous base, meaning it has nitrogen in a six-membered carbon ring. In NADH, one extra hydrogen is associated with this ring, which is not found in NAD^{+}.
The oxidized form of the electron carrier (NAD + ) is shown on the left and the reduced form (NADH) is shown on the right. The nitrogenous base in NADH has one more hydrogen ion and two more electrons than in NAD + .

Atp in living systems

A living cell cannot store significant amounts of free energy. Excess free energy would result in an increase of heat in the cell, which would result in excessive thermal motion that could damage and then destroy the cell. Rather, a cell must be able to handle that energy in a way that enables the cell to store energy safely and release it for use only as needed. Living cells accomplish this by using the compound adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is often called the “energy currency” of the cell, and, like currency, this versatile compound can be used to fill any energy need of the cell. How? It functions similarly to a rechargeable battery.

When ATP is broken down, usually by the removal of its terminal phosphate group, energy is released. The energy is used to do work by the cell, usually by the released phosphate binding to another molecule, activating it. For example, in the mechanical work of muscle contraction, ATP supplies the energy to move the contractile muscle proteins. Recall the active transport work of the sodium-potassium pump in cell membranes. ATP alters the structure of the integral protein that functions as the pump, changing its affinity for sodium and potassium. In this way, the cell performs work, pumping ions against their electrochemical gradients.

Atp structure and function

At the heart of ATP is a molecule of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which is composed of an adenine molecule bonded to a ribose molecule and to a single phosphate group ( [link] ). Ribose is a five-carbon sugar found in RNA, and AMP is one of the nucleotides in RNA. The addition of a second phosphate group to this core molecule results in the formation of adenosine di phosphate (ADP); the addition of a third phosphate group forms adenosine tri phosphate (ATP).

This illustration shows the molecular structure of ATP. This molecule is an adenine nucleotide with a string of three phosphate groups attached to it. The phosphate groups are named alpha, beta, and gamma in order of increasing distance from the ribose sugar to which they are attached.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) has three phosphate groups that can be removed by hydrolysis to form ADP (adenosine diphosphate) or AMP (adenosine monophosphate).The negative charges on the phosphate group naturally repel each other, requiring energy to bond them together and releasing energy when these bonds are broken.

The addition of a phosphate group to a molecule requires energy. Phosphate groups are negatively charged and thus repel one another when they are arranged in series, as they are in ADP and ATP. This repulsion makes the ADP and ATP molecules inherently unstable. The release of one or two phosphate groups from ATP, a process called dephosphorylation    , releases energy.

Energy from atp

Hydrolysis is the process of breaking complex macromolecules apart. During hydrolysis, water is split, or lysed, and the resulting hydrogen atom (H + ) and a hydroxyl group (OH - ) are added to the larger molecule. The hydrolysis of ATP produces ADP, together with an inorganic phosphate ion (P i ), and the release of free energy. To carry out life processes, ATP is continuously broken down into ADP, and like a rechargeable battery, ADP is continuously regenerated into ATP by the reattachment of a third phosphate group. Water, which was broken down into its hydrogen atom and hydroxyl group during ATP hydrolysis, is regenerated when a third phosphate is added to the ADP molecule, reforming ATP.

Questions & Answers

what is the protein found in the blood?
Tobias Reply
globin
Joelia
Globin
globulins
EZRA
globulins
SASMITA
what is parasitic movement
Emmanuel Reply
Parasitic movement is a problem for all of us. So is its companion, parasitic tension. Parasitic movement is the excess contraction of muscles that you don't actually need to complete an action.
freya
what are eukaryotic cells
Thiza Reply
eukaryotic cells which posses a true nucleus that is the DNA is enclosed and covered by a nuclear membrane
Grace
what is the mean of pair of chromosomes
Kazula Reply
hi
Lagos
23 haploid and 23diploid
Patson
how are you studying in this quarantine? .. how are you keeping yourselves motivated?
sivajijadhav @815.com
good morning guyz
Joelia
morning
Kazula
hi
Justin
Good
Angela
tell me if you know what can be used...than reading pls hint me pls 🙏🙏🙏
Angela
what is the important of sex
Aremu Reply
why did human being need sex?
Aremu
because he/she have feelings
Chripine
reproduction...to make more
Yazi
due to active harmon
Manish
One important of sex is to reproduce
Emma
to ensure the countinuty of life
Yusuf
all of you are right
Edith
what is momentum
Asiya Reply
The strength or force that allows something to continue or grow stronger or faster as time pass
Emma
What is Centripetal Force?
Justin
centrepital force is the inward force required to keep a body moving with constant speed in a circular path
Yusuf
what is the test for protein
Takii Reply
List four condition necessary for seed germination
Tedeka Reply
water,air(oxygen),light,temperature
Hassan
water, light, oxygen and temperature
lilchris
water, oxygen, light temperature
Mike
water oxygen light and temperature
John
importance of biology
Alabina Reply
importance of boilogy
Alabina
what is soil
Amina Reply
soil is the upper part of the earth
Alabina
what is importance of studying biology
Alabina
soil is the uppermost layer of the earth on which plant grows
Yusuf
soil is defined as the thin surface of the upper most layer of the earth crust on which plants grow
Thanni
soil is the upper part of the earth which plants grow on
Emma
differences between euglenoid and amoeboid
Grace Reply
what are the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
Maxwell Reply
Aerobic respiration involves the use of oxygen whiles anaerobic respiration does not involve the use of oxygen
Quabena
what is assmilation
Lucy Reply
what is cell
Manish Reply
cell is the structural and functional unit of life or living things
hamid
where anaerobic respiration occurre?
Manish
in cell
Manish
in cells?
Manish
where anaerobic respiration occurre in cell?
Manish

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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