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Natuurwetenskappe

Graad 8

Energie: elektrisiteit, energie, warmte en lig

Module 5

Energiebronne van die toekoms

  • Na afloop van die vorige module is dit duidelik dat ons na alternatiewe bronne vir ons land se energie- en elektrisiteitsvoorsiening sal moet begin kyk.
  • Die tipes waarna ons nou verwys, staan veral bekend as HERNUBARE ENERGIEBRONNE en heelwat inligting is al daaroor beskikbaar.
  • Ons verwys hier na: SONKRAG: Sonpanele op huise se dakke wat verwarmingstelsels dryf, sonselle in rekenaars en sommige motors, asook sonstowe. WINDKRAG: Groot windlemme wat as gevolg van die draaibewegings wat deur die wind veroorsaak word, ‘n turbine kan dryf en elektrisiteit kan opwek.

Aktiwiteit 1:

Om ondersoek in te stel na die waarde van sonkrag en windkrag as hernubare energiebronne

[lu 1.1, 1.2, 1.3]

Opdrag 1:

Werk in pare en maak ‘n brosjure om die volgende van een van die hernubare energiebronne te adverteer:

  • jou motivering vir die promosie van hierdie soort bron (die voordele dus);
  • ‘n diagram om die werking kortliks en eenvoudig te toon – onthou, jy wil vir die man op straat verduidelik;
  • hoe hierdie energiebron die natuur bevoordeel en/of benadeel;
  • probleme wat jy sou ervaar met die gebruik van hierdie bron – kyk na finansiële aspekte;
  • jou persoonlike opinie en motivering waarom gebruikers dit behoort te oorweeg.

Elke groepie kan ‘n voordrag doen en die klas kan die beste pamflette uitkies.

Assessering van Brosjure

Kon jy genoegsaam inligting insamel om ‘n goeie brosjure saam te stel?

[LU 1.2, 1.3]

Bespreek die waarde van hernubare energiebronne in die klas. Kan ons as mensdom dit langer ignoreer?

Aktiwiteit 2:

Om ondersoek in te stel na ander soorte hernubare energiebronne

[lo 1.2, 2.3]

Ander bronne van energie bestaan ook reeds en kan gerus oorweeg word deur die beplanners van die toekoms.

Hulle sluit in:

Gety-energie : waar die hoogwater- en laagwaterwisseling gebruik word.

Brand-erenergie : word reeds gebruik in lande soos Japan, Brittanje en Noorweë.

Bio-gas : afvalhope en dieremis gee groot hoeveelhede metaangas af wat gerus ontgin kan word.

Geotermiese energie : warmbronne onder die see.

Opdrag 1:

Soek op die internet en kyk of jy nog ‘n paar kan kry.

Sou SA enige van die bostaande kon gebruik? Bespreek dit in die klas.

Assessering van Inligting oor Hernubare Energiebronne

Kon jy energiebronne vind en inligting daaroor aan die klas verstrek?

Assessering

LU 1

Wetenskaplike Ondersoek Die leerder is in staat om met selfvertroue op weetgierigheid oor natuurlike verskynsels te reageer, en om binne die konteks van wetenskap, tegnologie en die omgewing verbande te ondersoek en probleme op te los.

Dit word bewys as die leerder:

1.1 ondersoeke kan beplan;

1.2 ondersoeke kan uitvoer en data kan insamel;

1.3 data kan evalueer en bevindinge kan kommunikeer.

LU 2

Wetenskaplike KennisDie leerder ken, interpreteer en pas wetenskaplike, tegnologiese en omgewingskennis toe.

Dit word bewys as die leerder:

2.1 sinvolle inligting kan oproep;

2.2 inligting in kategorieë kan plaas;

2.3 inligting kan interpreteer;

2.4 kennis kan toepas.

LU 3

Wetenskap, Omgewing en die GemeenskapDie leerder is in staat om begrip van die onderlinge verband tussen wetenskap en tegnologie, die samelewing en die omgewing te toon.

Dit word bewys as die leerder:

3.1 wetenskap as ‘n menslike aktiwiteit kan verstaan;

3.2 volhoubare gebruik van die aarde se hulpbronne verstaan.

Memorandum

Module 3

ENERGIEBRONNE VAN DIE TOEKOMS

Aktiwiteit

OPDRAG 1:

Brosjure – oop memo – behou opdragriglyne

Alternatiewe energiebronne

Aktiwiteit 2:

OPDRAG 1:

Potensiële nuwe bronne van energie sluit biomassa, geotermiese energie, hidro-elektrisiteit, termiese oseaanenergie, windenergie en die direkte omsetting van sonlig in energie deur middel van fotovoltaïese selle (SONSELLE) in.

Biomassa

Elektrisiteit kan opgewek word deur die verbranding van organiese afval om water te verhit en stoom te maak. Biomassa sluit hout, blare, oesreste en selfs diereafval in. Hierdie materiaal kan omgesit word in vloeibare brandstof soos etanol wat by petrol gevoeg word, of metaangas, wat soos natuurlike gas aangewend kan word. Die populêrste gebruik van biomassa is die verbranding daarvan as brandstof, soos hout in ’n vuurherd. ‘n Goeie opsie in SA.

Hidro-elektrisiteit en wind deel ‘n gesamentlike aantrekkingskrag met die direkte omsetting van sonlig, vir sover beide geen besoedeling verskaf nie en daar geen chemiese of radioaktiewe afval is nie. Ons is ongelukkig ‘n waterarmland.

Termiese oseaan-energie

Termiese oseaan-energie-omsetters is masjiene wat ontwerp is om elektrisiteit in warm tropiese waters op te wek. Hulle benut die warm oppervlakwater om ‘n vloeistof, soos ammoniak, wat by baie lae temperature kook, te verdamp.

Die stoom wat geproduseer word, word dan deur turbines geforseer om elektrisiteit op te wek. Die gas word dan weer in ’n tenk gestoor waar koue water uit die oseaan gebring word om dit weer in ’n vloeistof te omskep. Die proses word in ’n geslote siklus herhaal. Ons is ongelukkig nie in die trope geleë nie.

Sonkrag

Die direkte omskakeling van sonlig is die belowendste onder die hernieubare stelsels. Sonpanele word op hierdie stadium slegs op klein skaal gebruik, maar die verdere ontwikkeling van hierdie tegnologie sal waarskynlik daartoe lei dat sonenergie een van die belangrikste alternatiewe energie-tegnologieë word.

  • ‘n Groot moontlikheid in ons land.

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Source:  OpenStax, Natuurwetenskappe graad 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11049/1.1
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