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Natural sciences

Grade 9

Life processes: healthy life

Module 5

Breathing and health

Air pollution and too much dust and smoke can cause damage to lungs by preventing the cleansing system of the air passages from operating effectively.

When the lung tissue is damaged, oxygen cannot be transferred effectively to the blood, and the heart has to exert itself to supply enough oxygenated blood to all the cells. This leads to health problems and heart disease.

Smoke particles continuously bombard the sensitive lung tissue and this tissue eventually tries to protect itself by growing extra cell layers to act as a shield, which is how CANCER develops!

Respiratory diseases


  • Occurs in people who smoke – the cilia are paralysed and build-up of phlegm occurs
  • Continuous coughing begins to damage blood capillaries
  • Gas exchange is hampered – the affected person suffers from a lack of oxygen
  • Death may result.


  • Inflammation of the bronchi and bronchioles result from bacterial infections
  • Much mucus or phlegm is formed – the sufferer coughs continuously
  • Smoking exacerbates the symptoms and recovery is slower.


  • An allergic reaction to certain substances
  • The sufferer struggles to breathe
  • Medication is essential for the dilation of the bronchial tubes
  • It is dangerous to use another person’s respirator / breathing apparatus. Different respirators have different kinds of chemical substances; therefore it is important to keep to the doctor’s prescription.


  • Caused by a bacterial infection, which first affects the lungs
  • The sufferer coughs continuously, loses weight, loses his or her appetite, has night sweats, is out of breath and coughs up blood.
  • It is infectious and bacteria are spread by means of the tiny particles of phlegm that are dispersed during coughing.
  • It is completely treatable at the nearest clinic – sufferers merely have to continue the treatment over the extended period for which this might be required.
  • It is a problem among inhabitants of the Cape Flats and in poor communities.
  • All babies should be vaccinated with the BCG vaccine.
  • Questions: LUNG DISORDERS:

1. Why do people with asthma suffer from lack of breath?

2. Why do TB sufferers cough up blood?

3. Why does TB present a problem in poor communities?

4. Why should you not use cough suppressants when you suffer from bronchitis?

5. How does a person suffering from emphysema lose the function of the cilia?


  • You can choke when you swallow quickly or when you laugh, talk or cough while swallowing. The epiglottis (a cartilage “lid”), which should close the windpipe temporarily when food has to pass over this opening to the gullet, does not close fast enough and food inadvertedly goes down the windpipe or trachea.
  • A person who is choking usually tries to get out of the way to hide his discomfort. Follow such a person and find out whether he or she is all right. If they are able to produce a sound, the choking is not too serious and a good fit of coughing will clear the windpipe. However, if the windpipe is blocked, brain damage will occur within 4 to 5 minutes and it is imperative to help such a person.


  • Stand behind the sufferer, with your arms around his or her waist.
  • Clench one hand into a fist and place the other hand over it, just above the navel and below the ribcage.
  • Apply a sharp upward movement repeatedly.
  • Small children could be laid face down over the knee.

Demonstrate the Heimlich Manoeuvre to your family,without applying pressure.

You may be able to save a life if you learn to do the Heimlich Manoeuvre correctly. Consider joining your school’s First Aid team and following a course in first aid .

Class activity: POSTER on smoking

  • Collect warnings from cigarette packets and old magazines – remember that advertising smoking is prohibited!
  • Find out about laws concerning smoking – what are the latest developments?
  • Create a poster to feature in a consciousness-raising campaign. Put it up outside your classroom, or arrange an exhibition for your school.


  • Each cigarette shortens the smoker’s life by 5,5 minutes – 20 per day therefore causes a loss of six months for every six years of smoking.
  • A cigarette contains 4 000 different chemicals. Some of them are deadly toxins, e.g. arsenic, carbon monoxide, nicotine and cyanide!
  • Half a gram of nicotine can kill an adult within minutes!

if a smoker stops smoking:

  • the capacity for taste and smell will improve within two days
  • the morning cough will disappear within two weeks
  • the risk of heart disease will be halved within one year

the price shock:

  • At almost R13 per packet of 20, a packet of cigarettes per day costs R 390 per month. At this rate, a smoker had to pay R4 680 for his smoking habit in 2004!

Assessment: POSTER

Could you project an effective health warning through sound planning (1.1) and the execution of the investigation (1.2)?

LO 1.1; LO 1.2


Learning Outcomes 1 : Scientific Investigation

The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena, and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological and environmental contexts.

We know this when the learner:

1.1 plans investigations;

  • conducts investigations and collects data;



1. Bronchi close up.

2. Blood capillaries rupture because of bouts of coughing.

3. Neglect, unhealthy living conditions, poor education, crowded living conditions.

4. Phlegm must be coughed up.

5. Too much phlegm.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11069/1.1
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