# 0.10 Electric circuits

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The amount of work done to move a charge from one point to another point in a circuit is called the potential difference between those two points. You can think of it as a difference in the potential energy of the charge due to its position in the circuit. The difference in potential energy, called potential difference, is equal to the amount of work done to move the charge between the two points.Just like with gravity, when you raise an object above the ground it has gravitational potential energy due to its position, the same goes for a charge in a circuit and electrical potential energy. Potential difference is measured between or across two points. We do not say potential difference through something.

Potential Difference

Electrical potential difference is the difference in electrical potential energy per unit charge between two points. The unit of potential difference is the volt named after the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745–1827) (V). The potential difference of a battery is the voltage measured across it when current is flowing through it.

The unit of potential difference is the volt (V), which is the same as 1 joule per coulomb, the amount of work done per unit charge. Electrical potential difference is also called voltage.

## Potential difference and emf

We use an instrument called a voltmeter to measure the potential difference between two points in a circuit. It must be connected across the two points, in parallel to that portion of the circuit as shown in the diagram below.

## Emf

When you use a voltmeter to measure the potential difference across (or between) the terminals of a battery, when no current is flowing through the battery, you are measuring the electromotive force (emf) of the battery. This is how much potential energy the battery has to make charges move through the circuit. It is a measure of how much chemical potential energy can be transferred to electrical energy in the battery. This driving potential energy is equal to the total potential energy drops in the circuit. This means that the voltage across the battery is equal to the sum of the voltages in the circuit.

emf
The emf (electromotive force) is the voltage measured across the terminals of a battery when no current is flowing through the battery.

You have now learnt that the emf is the voltage measured across the terminals of a battery when there is no current flowing through it and that the potential difference of a battery is the voltage measured across it when there is current flowing through it. So how do these two quantities compare with each other?

## Aim:

To measure the emf and potential difference across a battery in a circuit

## Apparatus:

A battery, connecting wires, a light bulb, a switch, a voltmeter.

## Method:

Set up a circuit with a battery, a lightbulb and a switch connected in series.

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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