# 25.9 Regulation of fluid volume and composition  (Page 3/9)

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## Regulation of cl –

Chloride is important in acid–base balance in the extracellular space and has other functions, such as in the stomach, where it combines with hydrogen ions in the stomach lumen to form hydrochloric acid, aiding digestion. Its close association with Na + in the extracellular environment makes it the dominant anion of this compartment, and its regulation closely mirrors that of Na + .

## Regulation of ca ++ And phosphate

The parathyroid glands monitor and respond to circulating levels of Ca ++ in the blood. When levels drop too low, PTH is released to stimulate the DCT to reabsorb Ca ++ from the forming urine. When levels are adequate or high, less PTH is released and more Ca ++ remains in the forming urine to be lost. Phosphate levels move in the opposite direction. When Ca ++ levels are low, PTH inhibits reabsorption of ${\text{HPO}}_{4}^{2-}$ so that its blood level drops, allowing Ca ++ levels to rise. PTH also stimulates the renal conversion of calcidiol into calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D. Calcitriol then stimulates the intestines to absorb more Ca ++ from the diet.

## Regulation of h + , bicarbonate, and ph

The acid–base homeostasis of the body is a function of chemical buffers and physiologic buffering provided by the lungs and kidneys. Buffers, especially proteins, ${\text{HCO}}_{3}^{2-}$ , and ammonia have a very large capacity to absorb or release H + as needed to resist a change in pH. They can act within fractions of a second. The lungs can rid the body of excess acid very rapidly (seconds to minutes) through the conversion of HCO 3 into CO 2 , which is then exhaled. It is rapid but has limited capacity in the face of a significant acid challenge. The kidneys can rid the body of both acid and base. The renal capacity is large but slow (minutes to hours). The cells of the PCT actively secrete H + into the forming urine as Na + is reabsorbed. The body rids itself of excess H + and raises blood pH. In the collecting ducts, the apical surfaces of intercalated cells have proton pumps that actively secrete H + into the luminal, forming urine to remove it from the body.

As hydrogen ions are pumped into the forming urine, it is buffered by bicarbonate (HCO 3 ), H 2 PO 4 (dihydrogen phosphate ion), or ammonia (forming NH 4 + , ammonium ion). Urine pH typically varies in a normal range from 4.5 to 8.0.

## Regulation of nitrogen wastes

Nitrogen wastes are produced by the breakdown of proteins during normal metabolism. Proteins are broken down into amino acids, which in turn are deaminated by having their nitrogen groups removed. Deamination converts the amino (NH 2 ) groups into ammonia (NH 3 ), ammonium ion (NH 4 + ), urea, or uric acid ( [link] ). Ammonia is extremely toxic, so most of it is very rapidly converted into urea in the liver. Human urinary wastes typically contain primarily urea with small amounts of ammonium and very little uric acid.

## Elimination of drugs and hormones

Water-soluble drugs may be excreted in the urine and are influenced by one or all of the following processes: glomerular filtration, tubular secretion, or tubular reabsorption. Drugs that are structurally small can be filtered by the glomerulus with the filtrate. Large drug molecules such as heparin or those that are bound to plasma proteins cannot be filtered and are not readily eliminated. Some drugs can be eliminated by carrier proteins that enable secretion of the drug into the tubule lumen. There are specific carriers that eliminate basic (such as dopamine or histamine) or acidic drugs (such as penicillin or indomethacin). As is the case with other substances, drugs may be both filtered and reabsorbed passively along a concentration gradient.

## Chapter review

The major hormones regulating body fluids are ADH, aldosterone and ANH. Progesterone is similar in structure to aldosterone and can bind to and weakly stimulate aldosterone receptors, providing a similar but diminished response. Blood pressure is a reflection of blood volume and is monitored by baroreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid sinuses. When blood pressure increases, more action potentials are sent to the central nervous system, resulting in greater vasodilation, greater GFR, and more water lost in the urine. ANH is released by the cardiomyocytes when blood pressure increases, causing Na + and water loss. ADH at high levels causes vasoconstriction in addition to its action on the collecting ducts to recover more water. Diuretics increase urine volume. Mechanisms for controlling Na + concentration in the blood include the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system and ADH. When Na + is retained, K + is excreted; when Na + is lost, K + is retained. When circulating Ca ++ decreases, PTH stimulates the reabsorption of Ca ++ and inhibits reabsorption of ${\text{HPO}}_{4}^{2-}$ . pH is regulated through buffers, expiration of CO 2 , and excretion of acid or base by the kidneys. The breakdown of amino acids produces ammonia. Most ammonia is converted into less-toxic urea in the liver and excreted in the urine. Regulation of drugs is by glomerular filtration, tubular secretion, and tubular reabsorption.

demand and supply rules
compative demand and supply
jamac
compare demand and supply
jamac
what are simple epithelial tissues
is a type of tissue which covers the external and internal part of the body
Fatou
Tasha
what is platelets
platelet is also known as thrombocyte.thrombo means clot.it is a formed element of blood formed from fragment of megakaryocyte surrounded by plasma membrane in the redbone marow
what is diabetes insipidus
it is an infection due to less or no secretion of ADH characterized by excretion of dilute urine
Meshack
Infection? I don't think any form of diabetes, whether it's mellitus or insipidus, is caused by an infection.
Matias
ya
Akanyijuka
it is the disorder of salt & water metabolism
Emma
diabetes inspidus is a condition were the liver can't produce insulin to convert the excess sugar to glycogen.
mangs
sorry that is for diabetes mellitus
mangs
what is septal cartilage
hey
Austine
good evening boss
Austine
Evening
Esther
good evening
Melissa
evening
Vitus
hi
Rodgers
good morning
Aurelia
hello
Helsa
you guys are from ?
Aurelia
Philippines
Helsa
im from india
Aurelia
Hello
Amos
why
Sami
wat
Rodgers
what's that
what's the medulla?
The medulla oblongata or simply medulla is a long stem-like structure which makes up the lower part of the brainstem. It is anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum
Ludmila
define bone in simple terms
bones are made up by collagen and calcium phosphate
Aurelia
yes
Confidence
Bones are the hard large calcareous connective tissue of which the adult skeleton of most vertebrates is chiefly composed
Olalekan
Bone is the substance that forms skeleton
Frances
good morning
Mrinal
Skelton muscles is any disorder of calcium
Mrinal
Bones protect the various organs of the body
Celina
Bone is a hard strong and durable type of connective tissue
Bkv
bone is a hard, calcareous connective tissue which gives structural support to the body and helpless in its locomotion!
Divya
It also is the main site for synthesis of the RBCs
Divya
Mhoses
A diagram of epithelial tissue
What does the urinary regulate blood pressure
functions of melatonin
d. inversely proportional
Airway resistance in the human lung is? a. Greatest in the generation of distal bronchioles in healthy people because these airways have the smallest radii b. Not increased during a forced expiration in a healthy subject c. Decreased when breathing through the mouth d. Inversely proportional
1. Chemical level 2. Cellular level 3.Tissue level 4. Organ level 5.Organ system level 5.Organismal level
d
HMD
High
HMD
hlw
Maryam
------is not a content of femoral canal? a. Fatty tissue b. Femoral nerve c. Lymph vessels d. Lymph node
Maryam
a
Alhassan
why there is bleeding in menstruation?
menopause
Vasu
no
KUHELI
no one ready to help me
Maryam
skin
The following hormones increase the blood glucose level except_____________? a. Parathormone b. Growth Hormone c. Epinephrine d. Thyroxine
Maryam
c.epinephrine
Divya
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic feature of alveoli in the lung? a. Poor blood supply b. A large surface area c. Thin walls d. Chemical layer called surfactant
Maryam
a.poor blood supply
Divya
poor blood supply
Tanvi
Excess of cortisol causes______________? a. Acromegaly b. Conn’s syndrome c. Diabetes insipidus d. Cushing syndrome
Maryam
plz fast
Maryam
cushing syndrome
Tanvi
thank you
Maryam
Airway resistance in the human lung is? a. Greatest in the generation of distal bronchioles in healthy people because these airways have the smallest radii b. Not increased during a forced expiration in a healthy subject c. Decreased when breathing through the mouth d. Inversely proportional
Maryam
what happens to the brain when one cannot sleep
aghedo
it means melatonin is not released enough to make u fall asleep or there is a disturbance or destruction for melatonin to be released on time
Mhoses