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Finally, although a software design is correct, it may not be followed as such during its implementation. So, we must be aware that wrong implementation of a design can lead to wrong software just like a wrong design would.

We understand that software design can lead to some drawbacks that are not to be ignored, but its advantages, as we have seen, are very relevant too. Considering all this, we believe that understanding the fundamentals of (software) design, as well good practices, guidelines, and enabling techniques are essential to an aspiring architect.

Elements of software design process

The design process can be described as the process of choosing a representation of a solution from a set of alternatives, given the constraints towards a set of goals. It can be divided in two phases : diversification and convergence.

The diversification is the phase of generating alternatives. Not necessarily documents describing a possible solution, but, at least, on the designer's mind. These alternatives are the solution candidates and are generated/obtained from knowledge, catalogs, or previous experience. During the convergence phase, the designer chooses the alternative (or the combination of alternatives) that meets the intended goals. The alternative selected will be the solution, which will meet the constraints imposed by the problem domain. The solution then may be described using some representation. The representation chosen must fit its purpose: describe the solution and the process to build the artifact that reaches the intended goals.

From the paragraph above, we must emphasize the following elements: goals , constraints , alternatives , representations , and solutions . These elements together define a conceptual framework that helps to understand the software design process.


Design begins with a need. If something is to be designed, though to be built, it is because the outcome of the design process will fulfill this need. In Software Engineering, the necessity starts from a customer who specifies what are her needs and therefore what are the goals to be achieved with the software system to be designed. So, the goal of the design process is to achieve a solution that will solve the customer's needs . In software design, goals are also referred to as requirements. Software design is mainly concerned on two types of requirements: functional and nonfunctional requirements.

A functional requirement specifies the functionality that a system will exhibit. In other words, what the system is to perform according to the customer. For example, a functional requirement for a sorting program is to provide the ability to sort integers. Another example could be related to a software system that manages the inventory of a movie rental store. If we were to enumerate the functional requirements of a system like this, among them would be: the ability to search for a movie by its keywords, the ability to perform a movie rental, the ability to perform a movie return, and many others.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, Software architecture for experts-to-be. OpenStax CNX. Sep 16, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10574/1.1
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