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Because MBE takes place in UHV and has relatively low pressure of residual gas at the surface, analysis techniques such as reflection high energy diffraction and ellipsometry can be used during growth, both to study and control the growth process. The UHV environment also allows pre or post growth analysis techniques such as Auger spectroscopy.

Elemental and molecular sources

The effusion cell is used for the majority of MBE growth. All materials used in the cell are carefully chosen to be noninteracting with the element being evaporated. For example, the crucible is pyrolitic boron nitride. However, it has disadvantages, such as:

  • The evaporated species may be molecular, rather than monomeric, which will require further dissocation at the surface.
  • When the shutter is opened, the heat loss from the cell results in a transient in the beam flux which last for several minutes and cause variations of up to 50%.
  • The growth chamber must be opened up to replace the solid sources.

Cracker cells are used to improve the ratio of monomeric to molecular (or at least dimeric to tetrameric) particles from the source. The cracker cell, placed so that the beam passes through it after the effusion cell, is maintained at a high temperature (and sometimes high pressure) to encourage dissociation. The dissociation process generally requires a catalyst and the best catalysts for a given species have been studied.

Some elements, such as silicon, have low enough vapor pressure that more direct heating techniques such as electron bombardment or laser radiation heating are used. The electron beam is bent using electromagnetic focusing to prevent any impurities in the electron source from contaminating the silicon to be used in MBE. Because the heat is concentrated on the surface to be evaporated, interactions with and contamination from the crucible walls is reduced. In addition, this design does not require a shutter, so there is no problem with transients. Modulation of the beam can produce very sharp interfaces on the substrate. In laser radiation heating, the electron beam is replaced by a laser beam. The advantages of localized heating and rapid modulation are also maintained without having to worry about contamination from the electron source or stray electrons.

Some of the II-VI (12-16) compounds have such high vapor pressure that a Knudson cell cannot be used. For example, the mercury source must be kept cooler than the substrate to keep the vapor pressure low enough to be feasible. The Hg source must also be sealed off from the growth chamber to allow the chamber to be pumped down.

Two other methods of obtaining the elements for use in epitaxy are gas-source epitaxy and chemical beam epitaxy (CBE). Both of these methods use gas sources, but they are distinguished by the use of elemental beams in gas source epitaxy, while organometallic beams are used in CBE. For the example of III-V (13-15) semiconductors, in gas epitaxy, the group III material may come from an effusion cell while the group V material is the hydride, such as AsH 3 or PH 3 , which is cracked before entering the growth chamber. In CBE, the group V material is an organometallic, such as triethylgallium [Ga(C 2 H 5 ) 3 ] or trimethylaluminum [Al(CH 3 ) 3 ], which adsorbs on the surface, where it dissociates.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of electronic materials. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10719/1.9
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