# 0.10 Electric circuits

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## Electric circuits

People all over the world depend on electricity to provide power for most appliances in the home and at work. For example, fluorescent lights, electric heating and cooking (on electric stoves), all depend on electricity to work. To realise just how big an impact electricity has on our daily lives, just think about what happens when there is a powerfailure or load shedding.

## Discussion : uses of electricity

With a partner, take the following topics and, for each topic, write down at least 5 items/appliances/machines which need electricity to work. Try not to use the same item more than once.

• At home
• At school
• At the hospital
• In the city

Once you have finished making your lists, compare with the lists of other people in your class. (Save your lists somewhere safe for later because there will be another activity for which you'll need them.)

When you start comparing, you should notice that there are many different items which we use in our daily lives which rely on electricity to work!

Safety Warning: We believe in experimenting and learning about physics at every opportunity, BUT playing with electricity and electrical appliances can be EXTREMELY DANGEROUS ! Do not try to build homemade circuits alone. Make sure you have someone with you who knows if what you are doing is safe.Normal electrical outlets are dangerous. Treat electricity with respect in your everyday life. Do not touch exposed wires and do not approach downed power lines.

## Closed circuits

In the following activity we will investigate what is needed to cause charge to flow in an electric circuit.

## Aim:

To determine what is required to make electrical charges flow. In this experiment, we will use a lightbulb to check whether electrical charge is flowing in the circuit or not. If charge is flowing, the lightbulb should glow. On the other hand, if no charge is flowing, the lightbulb will not glow.

## Apparatus:

You will need a small lightbulb which is attached to a metal conductor (e.g. a bulb from a school electrical kit), some connecting wires and a battery.

## Method:

Take the apparatus items and try to connect them in a way that you cause the light bulb to glow (i.e. charge flows in the circuit).

## Questions:

1. Once you have arranged your circuit elements to make the lightbulb glow, draw your circuit.
2. What can you say about how the battery is connected? (i.e. does it have one or two connecting leads attached? Where are they attached?)
3. What can you say about how the light bulb is connected in your circuit? (i.e. does it connect to one or two connecting leads, and where are they attached?)
4. Are there any items in your circuit which are not attached to something? In other words, are there any gaps in your circuit?

Write down your conclusion about what is needed to make an electric circuit work and charge to flow.

In the experiment above, you will have seen that the light bulb only glows when there is a closed circuit i.e. there are no gaps in the circuit and all the circuit elements are connected in a closed loop . Therefore, in order for charges to flow, a closed circuit and an energy source (in this case the battery) are needed. (Note: you do not have to have a lightbulb in the circuit! We used this as a check that charge was flowing.)

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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