<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
A woman is shown voting at a voting booth.
Should a former felony conviction permanently strip a U.S. citizen of the right to vote? (Photo courtesy of Joshin Yamada/flickr)

Edwin sutherland: differential association

In the early 1900s, sociologist Edwin Sutherland sought to understand how deviant behavior developed among people. Since criminology was a young field, he drew on other aspects of sociology including social interactions and group learning (Laub 2006). His conclusions established differential association theory    , which suggested that individuals learn deviant behavior from those close to them who provide models of and opportunities for deviance. According to Sutherland, deviance is less a personal choice and more a result of differential socialization processes. A tween whose friends are sexually active is more likely to view sexual activity as acceptable.

Sutherland’s theory may explain why crime is multigenerational. A longitudinal study beginning in the 1960s found that the best predictor of antisocial and criminal behavior in children was whether their parents had been convicted of a crime (Todd and Jury 1996). Children who were younger than ten years old when their parents were convicted were more likely than other children to engage in spousal abuse and criminal behavior by their early thirties. Even when taking socioeconomic factors such as dangerous neighborhoods, poor school systems, and overcrowded housing into consideration, researchers found that parents were the main influence on the behavior of their offspring (Todd and Jury 1996).

Travis hirschi: control theory

Continuing with an examination of large social factors, control theory states that social control is directly affected by the strength of social bonds and that deviance results from a feeling of disconnection from society. Individuals who believe they are a part of society are less likely to commit crimes against it.

Travis Hirschi (1969) identified four types of social bonds that connect people to society:

  1. Attachment measures our connections to others. When we are closely attached to people, we worry about their opinions of us. People conform to society’s norms in order to gain approval (and prevent disapproval) from family, friends, and romantic partners.
  2. Commitment refers to the investments we make in the community. A well-respected local businesswoman who volunteers at her synagogue and is a member of the neighborhood block organization has more to lose from committing a crime than a woman who doesn’t have a career or ties to the community.
  3. Similarly, levels of involvement , or participation in socially legitimate activities, lessen a person’s likelihood of deviance. Children who are members of little league baseball teams have fewer family crises.
  4. The final bond, belief , is an agreement on common values in society. If a person views social values as beliefs, he or she will conform to them. An environmentalist is more likely to pick up trash in a park, because a clean environment is a social value to him (Hirschi 1969).

Questions & Answers

Describe any two macro sociological perspectives
Amanda Reply
Hindi language sociology
Pankajkumar Reply
yes
Suhab
si
Kevin
hello sociologist
Ebube
hi guys im rufaro
Rufaro
Discuss the assertion that mass media presents men as dominant and women as powerless
Rufaro
Please can someone help me out with definition of crime by various authors..
Ogidi Reply
what are the contemporary issues confronting Nigeria political system?
Ayewa Reply
one argment in favour of the traditionalists is that human behaviour is subjected to what
Wanogho
empirical evidence
Mohamed
what is social psychology
ABBA Reply
the scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behaviour in a given context.
MUBARAK
please what is the history of sociology in the society
Mustapha
what are the views of Karl Marx on nature of human nature, nature of society and how society works
AGNES Reply
what are the sociological concepts
Mustapha Reply
I'm glad to be part of this noble group.
Alaro Reply
😆😆😆😆
Nyasha
what
Bobby
sorry they were emojis that came out like that
Nyasha
😆😆😆😆😆😆😆😆
Nyasha
it's ok
Bobby
I think we should text only sociology,, not personal,,,,
Zubair
hello
Grace
Hello
abhay
Hello
Arxoo
it depends
Lokesh
group work
asim
hello all. are you fine?
Lhoussaine
Hi
Safia
hey
Nyasha
can we start to introduce our selfes?
Lhoussaine
I'm grate n u?
Massa
am grt
dollar
who created this group?
dollar
pls what is the view of Karl max on capitalism
Alhassan
Can anyone please explain to me the Sociological knowledge
Nokwanda
I am Esther
Ester
Am silas
Silas
what are the agents of socialization
MARSHAL Reply
family friends schoolmates peer groups
Nyasha
The school, mass media, home etc
Appiah
workmates
Marvin
what factors prompted the development of sociology of education
Faith Reply
factors that prompted the development of sociology of education
Faith
sociology my febarit subject
Bp
factory working culture, nuclear family, industrialization etc
Zubair
Relevant of anthropology
Sani Reply
effect of fgm on health
Nana Reply
What is collective behavior
Riaz Reply
COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOUR Behaviour in crowds and mobs that occurs when the usual norms are suspended.
Mary
How does climate affect human behaviour
Amanda Reply
discuss the five factors that promotes national conciousness unity and integrity in nageria? .com
Abubakar Reply

Get the best Introduction to sociol... course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Introduction to sociology 2e' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask