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Although lapping would appear to be simple in concept, the successful implementation of a production lapping operation requires the development of a technique and experience to achieve acceptable quality with good yields. Small adjustments to the rotation rates of the plates and carriers will cause the plates to wear concave, convex or flat.

As lapping is a messy process, various efforts have been made to avoid it or to substitute an alternative process. The most likely approach at present is grinding, in which the wafer is held on a vacuum chuck and a series of progressively finer diamond wheels is moved over the wafer while it is rotated on a turn table. Grinding gives a clearer surface than lapping, however, only one side may be ground at a time and the resulting flatness is not as good as that obtained by lapping.

Edge contouring

The rounding of the edge of the wafer to a specific contour is a fairly recent development in the technology of wafer preparation. It was known by the early seventies that a significant number of device yield problems could be traced to the physical condition of the wafer edge. An acute edge affects the strength of the wafer due to: stress concentration, and a lowering of its resistance to thermal stress, as well as being the source of particle chip, breakage, and lattice damage. In addition, the particles originating from the chipped edges can, if present on the wafer surface, add to the defect density (D 0 ) of the IC process reducing fabrication yield. Further problems associated with a square edge include the build-up of photoresist at the wafer edge. The solution to these process problems is to provide a contoured edge with a defined radius (r).

Chemical etching of wafers results in a degree of edge rounding, but it is difficult to control. Thus, mechanical edge contouring has been developed and the result has been a dramatic improvement in yields in downstream wafer processing. Losses due to wafer breakage are also reduced. The edge contouring process is usually performed in cassette-fed high speed equipment, in which each wafer is rotated rapidly against a shaped cutting tool ( [link] ).

Schematic illustration of edge contouring.

Etching

The mechanical processes described above to shape the wafer leave the surface and edges damaged and contaminated. The depth of the work damage depends on the specific process, however, 10 μm is typical. Such damage is readily removed by chemical etching. Etching is used at multiple points during the fabrication of a semiconductor device. The discussion below is limited to etches suitable for wafer fabrication, i.e., non-selective etching of the entire wafer surface.

Wet chemical etching

The wet chemical etching of any material can be considered to involve three steps: (a) transportation of the reactants to the surface, (b) reaction at the surface, and (c) movement of the reaction products into the etchant solution ( [link] ). Each of these may be the rate limiting step and thus control the etch rate and uniformity. This effect is summarized in [link] .

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of electronic materials. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10719/1.9
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