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Economic and management sciences

Grade 7

Economic principles

Module 3

Making a profit

Activity 1:

To determine whether a dealer is making a profit on the product he sells

[lo 3.1]

A particular trader sells bananas on the pavement. He calculates his expenses carefully and ensures that the following costs are covered:

  • transport costs;
  • helper’s salary;
  • cost of packaging.

All these costs are added together to calculate the price of a banana accordingly. Then he adds a reasonable profit for himself and sells his bananas.

  • Can this trader be sure of making a profit? Provide reasons for your answer.

When you hope to run a profitable business over a period of time, it is very important to take care of particular aspects.

  • Treat all your clients with respect. Without clients, you cannot run a business.
  • Find out which products and services are required and where they are required.
  • Do not hope to become wealthy overnight. Your clients must be able to afford your products/services.
  • Ensure that your products are displayed attractively. Clients need to feel comfortable in their buying environment.

1. Competition

All sellers try to make money to take care of themselves and their families.

It therefore becomes important for any seller to compete with other sellers to persuade the consumer to buy from him/her rather than from the competitor. The seller has to search for new and better methods of producing the product offered to be able to sell it at a lower price / at a better profit. Any seller is sure to make many mistakes, and many businesses do fail.

2. The consumer

The businessman continually has to ask himself:

“Who will buy my products?”

This refers to his MARKET. He has to make a decision about the market he is going to aim at in advance.


  • Without consumers (the clients), the business cannot exist.
  • You must meet the needs of the consumers.
  • Listen to their complaints and to what they have to say.
  • Always be friendly.
  • Always provide good service.
  • Offer the best quality at the best price.
  • Always offer service of the same quality.
  • Be sensitive to the needs of the consumer and adjust the product accordingly.
  • Be creative and make adjustments to products to satisfy particular consumers.
  • Get to know customers and build up a personal relationship with them.

Activity 2:

To establish the demand for a product that you want to sell

[lo 4.1, 4.2]

Babies Boys2 – 6 Girls2 – 6 Boys7 – 12 Girls7 – 12 Teenage boys Teenage girls Men Women
Soft toys
Remote-controlled toys
Model cars&aeroplanes
Computer games

If you now determine who the particular clients from your surroundings are that would buy from you, you will have an idea of what kind of stock to offer.

3. Entrepreneurship

  • Definition

The word is derived from the French word “entreprendre”. “Entre” means “to enter in(to)”, while “prendre” means “to take”. From this we can deduce that an entrepreneur is someone who undertakes a particular task.

An entrepreneur is someone who has the ability to see a business opportunity, has

the courage to make use of it and the skill to manage it in a profitable manner.

  • Characteristics of the entrepreneur.
  • Prefers to work for himself.
  • Thinks in a new and original way.
  • Creates work for other people.
  • Has courage.
  • Exhibits perseverance.

Can you add to this list?

  • Why do people start their own businesses?

Discuss this question in your groups and jot down some possible reasons:

  • Could you be an entrepreneur?

Complete the following form as honestly as possible:

Characteristics YES NO
I have ideas for making money.
I have already made money with my ideas.
I should like to have my own business.
I often make plans of my own.
I am courageous.

If you have mainly said YES, you could definitely consider becoming an entrepreneur.


“A business is an opportunity to serve the consumer by satisfying some of his needs.”

“A successful business is an opportunity to serve the needs of the consumer and make money at the same time.”

* * * * * * * *


When you start a business, things take three times as long as you expect.


LO 3
MANAGERIAL, CONSUMER AND FINANCIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLSThe learner will be able to demonstrate knowledge and the ability to apply responsibly a range of managerial, consumer and financial skills.
We know this when the learner:
3.1 explains the role of planning, organising, leading and controlling (e.g. financial and procedural controls) in a business.
LO 4
ENTREPRENEURIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLSThe learner will be able to demonstrate entrepreneurial knowledge, skills and attitudes.
We know this when the learner:
4.1 compares essential characteristics and skills needed to be entrepreneurial from two different simple case studies of practising entrepreneurs in own community;
4.2 uses idea generation techniques to make recommendations on using community resources to generate income in a responsible way.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic and management sciences grade 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 10, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11025/1.1
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