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Back to Europe: A.D. 101 to 200

Southern europe

Eastern mediterranean islands |greece | upper balkans

This entire area was an integral part of the Roman Empire and was administered in three parts: The Dacian diocese, comprised of eastern Yugoslavia, western Bulgaria, Moesia Superior, Dacia and some smaller areas; the Macedonian diocese consisting chiefly of Greece; and the Thracian diocese, which was made up of eastern Bulgaria and the European part of Turkey, which in turn, included Lower Moesia, Scythia, Thrace, etc. Of these only Dacia used the Latin language, while the others all spoke Greek. The Goths arrived in the Black Sea area by A.D. 214 and soon occupied all the region west of this sea, splitting into two divisions, to be known as Ostrogoths (East Goths) and Visigoths (West Goths). They battled the Romans in this area throughout the century and the Roman Emperor Decius was slain by them in Dacia as the Romans withdrew in A.D. 275 to safety south of the Danube. Many native Dacians took to the hills with their Latin language, to reappear centuries later as ancestors of the modern Romanians. Gallus, a former legate of Moesia (chiefly the area of Bulgaria), became emperor of Rome in 251. In 268 Claudius II (Gothicus) became the first of a series of emperors from Illyria. They were a capable group and prepared the way for Diocletian. (Ref. 127 , 206 , 48 )


Although already diminished by some severe pestilence, the population of Rome at the beginning of this 3rd century was at least one million. An epidemic hit again between 251 and 266, with 5,000 dying each day at its peak in Rome and with the rural populations also heavily affected. The disease may have been either measles and/or smallpox. Civil disorders and barbarian invasions simply added to the problem. Vacancies within the legions on the Roman frontiers, caused by deaths from disease and mutinies, resulted in invitations to the barbarians to both enter the legions and settle the lands. Rapid die-off around the entire Mediterranean hampered commerce and diminished the flow of cash to the imperial treasury and this resulted in no pay for the soldiers, thus further mutinies, military uprisings and civil wars in outlying areas. (Ref. 140 ) Armies in different provinces tried to set up their own commanders as emperors (the "Thirty Tyrants"), but this situation was eliminated between 268 and 284. Of course almost constant war with the powerful Persians in the east did not help and a succession of emperors of anarchy came and went, usually by murders. The resources of the rich were consumed by war and by the government. The menial work of Rome was performed by about 400,000 slaves, with even middle class citizens owning about 8 and the rich from 500 to 1,000. (Ref. 222 )

The eastern part of the empire was momentarily saved in name, if not in truth, by Odenathus and Zenobia, as we have reported in the section on THE NEAR EAST. Gaul had revolted and assumed its own autonomy under first Postumus and then Tetricus. Aurel- ian, emperor from 270 to 275, however, temporarily restored Gaul, Spain and Britain to the fold and built the existing walls of Rome as a protection against future incursions by barbarians. To keep the expanding poor of Rome reasonably happy, Aurelian added free pork-fat and wine to the "Annona", as well as giving bread instead of just grain. In order to pay troops, the government gradually debased the silver currency and along with devaluation this culminated in rapid inflation. Increasingly slaves were used in all capacities, even in positions of dependent management of farms, shops, ships and banks. (Ref. 8 )

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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