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In spite of the advances in medical knowledge, general health in Europe was poor. Of every five children born, two died in infancy and one more died before maturity. The Royal College of Surgeons was established in England in 1505, stimulating medicine there.

By 1600 western physicians knew that scurvy could be prevented by green herbs or citrus fruits, but they were unable to convince the various admiralties. The potato, which was much smaller than that of today, was introduced to Europe through Spain from America about 1534, but it was not well accepted in some areas, some even thinking that the vegetable caused leprosy. After sugar cane had been taken from Africa to South America, the importation of colonial sugar from Brazil and the Caribbean became very significant in international trade. The Portuguese dumping of molasses at Antwerp soon doomed the honey-bee, because the price was so much lower than honey. (Ref. 122 , 211 ) But grain, flour, and bread were the food of Europe. Obtaining bread was the major preoccupation of all and whenever the price went up, violence was threatened. (Ref. 260 )

To understand the political intrigues of a very complicated Europe in this century one must realize that there were eight different, powerful factions present, which may be enumerated as follows:

  • Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain
  • The nobles of Germany
  • The Protestants of Germany and later of France
  • Francis I, King of France
  • The nobles of France
  • The Pope
  • Henry VIII, King of England
  • The Turks

There was almost constant warfare and strife throughout the continent, and these eight factions lined up in various ways at various times and on various sides, to battle each other. For example, Francis I remained Catholic, but at times helped Protestant nobles in Germany and Charles V at other times, but he also made alliances with the Turks against the emperor and with the Moors against Italy. The pope alternately warred against Charles V and then was on his side. Henry VIII backed the French part of the time and Charles and the Germans at other times. (Ref. 51 ) It is hoped that in the following paragraphs some of these complications may be partially unraveled.

Southern europe

The Mediterranean was no longer able to feed itself and it had to buy Baltic grain so that there was a resulting movement of Spanish silver (from America) to north Europe. The Mediterranean world was now always close to famine and this tended to dictate the course of world events, including the politics and wars. (Ref. 213 )

Eastern mediterranean islands

In this century the Turks ran the Venetians out of Cyprus but the latter held on to their other possessions. In 1522 Suleiman the Magnificent appeared off Rhodes with 700 warships containing an army of 200,000. Although the Knights Hospitallers, with about 500 knights and 6,000 soldiers, held out for 6 months, they finally had to withdraw. A few years later the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V gave the Knights the islands of Malta and Gozo for their headquarters and they henceforth were known as the "Knights of Malta". Suleiman attacked them also on Malta in 1565 with 373 warships and 40,000 men. Terrible warfare continued for nearly 5 months and about 2/3 of the attackers were killed and only about 600 of the 9,000 defenders were left alive and unwounded, but they held. Turkish sea-power was crippled by this defeat. The Knights regrouped, started work on a new capital city and a great hospital. (Ref. 38 , 86 )

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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