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The Finns were now quite well established in what we now call Finland but the armed Swedish merchants overran them on their way to Russia and they dominated the Finnish peasants throughout this period.

Overseas scandinavian centers

Iceland, which may have been touched still earlier by Norse seamen and perhaps Irish, was at least re-discovered by Norwegians and Danes about A.D. 860 and settlers began to migrate there to live by 870, with settlement completed within two generations Wilson (Ref. 237 ) says that the first three Viking voyages of exploration into the Atlantic were by a Swede, Gardar Svavarson and two Norwegians, Naddod and Fiokki Vilgerdeson. (Ref. 8 , 237 ) Additional Notes

Eastern europe

Southern baltic area

The Baltic area also received the raids of the Scandinavian Vikings and the Balts and Baltic Slavs all fell under the rule of a Swedish minority of armed merchants. About the end of the century the Lendizi tribe of Slavs began to dominate the Goplani and formed alliances with still other tribes in a coalition known as the Polani. Excavations at Mietlica, Poland, show iron and glass which were apparently imported in exchange for food stuffs, leather, wool and perhaps salt. This town, near the Notec River and Lake Goplo was probably a minor commercial center. There is evidence of cows, pigs, sheep, horses, domestic chickens, ducks and various wild game. (Ref. 244 )


Early in the century the eastern Slavs pushed eastward from Europe into the woodlands of central Russia, while the nomadic horsemen (Pechnegs and Magyars) rode westward across the southern steppe. (Ref. 8 ) Northern Russia had the same fate as the Baltic areas in that the Swedes established principalities at Novorod and Kiev in the heart of Slav territory, as well as a Black Sea stronghold at Tmutorokan (A.D. 825), challenging the Khazar trade route from the Don River to Constantinople. This was just south of the Magyar territory and just west of the Khazar Khanate, which still occupied most of the Caucasus. To the north of the Khazars were the Volga Bulgars. The trade route between the various Swedish principalities made a loosely bound commercial and political empire called "Ros" or "Rus", the origin of which is still uncertain. (See page 465). The Swedes (called Varangians in the next century) did not take their women with them and they married locally, thus becoming Slavicized in 1 1/2 centuries, even in the case of the ruling, and princely families. These Rus spoke a Slavic language and part of their culture was Finnish. Excavations at Staraje Ladoga, Kiev and Smolensk have shown some Scandinavian material, but at the first named city (the only place where 9th century levels have been reached) the buildings seem to have been Finnish, rather than Scandinavian. The Swedes were tradesmen, not craftsmen and their presence in Russia was certainly influential, even if not completely dominating. (Ref. 237 ) Additional Notes

Eventually Kiev became the center of this enterprise and its rulers, the Norse Rurik and his descendants, may be said to be the founders of the Russian state. This Kiev principality embraced nearly all of the eastern Slavonic tribes. This group made six assaults on Constantinople within the next two centuries but in spite of these occasional wars, trade flourished between Kiev and Byzantium. Gradually Russia accepted a Slavonic liturgy and alphabet and the Greek Church. The Russian Slavs were described by the Byzantines as rough and primitive although musical, honest, hospitable, fierce in battle and fond of hot baths. A major offensive against Byzantium in 860 was led by the Varangian Askold with Norse cavalry and probably Slav infantry. Askold's Kievan area then began to assume aspects of a true state. In about 880 Oleg, from the northern area, captured Kiev and first united the Swedish-Slav principalities. (Ref. 137 , 213 , 222 )

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
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Crow Reply
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RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
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Brian Reply
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industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
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scanning tunneling microscope
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what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
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what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
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What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
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what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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