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The Finns were now quite well established in what we now call Finland but the armed Swedish merchants overran them on their way to Russia and they dominated the Finnish peasants throughout this period.

Overseas scandinavian centers

Iceland, which may have been touched still earlier by Norse seamen and perhaps Irish, was at least re-discovered by Norwegians and Danes about A.D. 860 and settlers began to migrate there to live by 870, with settlement completed within two generations Wilson (Ref. 237 ) says that the first three Viking voyages of exploration into the Atlantic were by a Swede, Gardar Svavarson and two Norwegians, Naddod and Fiokki Vilgerdeson. (Ref. 8 , 237 ) Additional Notes

Eastern europe

Southern baltic area

The Baltic area also received the raids of the Scandinavian Vikings and the Balts and Baltic Slavs all fell under the rule of a Swedish minority of armed merchants. About the end of the century the Lendizi tribe of Slavs began to dominate the Goplani and formed alliances with still other tribes in a coalition known as the Polani. Excavations at Mietlica, Poland, show iron and glass which were apparently imported in exchange for food stuffs, leather, wool and perhaps salt. This town, near the Notec River and Lake Goplo was probably a minor commercial center. There is evidence of cows, pigs, sheep, horses, domestic chickens, ducks and various wild game. (Ref. 244 )


Early in the century the eastern Slavs pushed eastward from Europe into the woodlands of central Russia, while the nomadic horsemen (Pechnegs and Magyars) rode westward across the southern steppe. (Ref. 8 ) Northern Russia had the same fate as the Baltic areas in that the Swedes established principalities at Novorod and Kiev in the heart of Slav territory, as well as a Black Sea stronghold at Tmutorokan (A.D. 825), challenging the Khazar trade route from the Don River to Constantinople. This was just south of the Magyar territory and just west of the Khazar Khanate, which still occupied most of the Caucasus. To the north of the Khazars were the Volga Bulgars. The trade route between the various Swedish principalities made a loosely bound commercial and political empire called "Ros" or "Rus", the origin of which is still uncertain. (See page 465). The Swedes (called Varangians in the next century) did not take their women with them and they married locally, thus becoming Slavicized in 1 1/2 centuries, even in the case of the ruling, and princely families. These Rus spoke a Slavic language and part of their culture was Finnish. Excavations at Staraje Ladoga, Kiev and Smolensk have shown some Scandinavian material, but at the first named city (the only place where 9th century levels have been reached) the buildings seem to have been Finnish, rather than Scandinavian. The Swedes were tradesmen, not craftsmen and their presence in Russia was certainly influential, even if not completely dominating. (Ref. 237 ) Additional Notes

Eventually Kiev became the center of this enterprise and its rulers, the Norse Rurik and his descendants, may be said to be the founders of the Russian state. This Kiev principality embraced nearly all of the eastern Slavonic tribes. This group made six assaults on Constantinople within the next two centuries but in spite of these occasional wars, trade flourished between Kiev and Byzantium. Gradually Russia accepted a Slavonic liturgy and alphabet and the Greek Church. The Russian Slavs were described by the Byzantines as rough and primitive although musical, honest, hospitable, fierce in battle and fond of hot baths. A major offensive against Byzantium in 860 was led by the Varangian Askold with Norse cavalry and probably Slav infantry. Askold's Kievan area then began to assume aspects of a true state. In about 880 Oleg, from the northern area, captured Kiev and first united the Swedish-Slav principalities. (Ref. 137 , 213 , 222 )

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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