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The establishment of the modern Finnish language is credited to Johan Snellman (1806- 1881). Carl Ludwig Engel (1778-1840) was the architect of the great square of Helsinki. Jean Sibelius (1875-1957) began his symphony work as the century closed. (Ref. 34 , 175 )

Eastern europe

Even as today, in the l9th century most of east Europe belonged politically to Russia, although there were multiple language groups such as Finnish, Estonian, Latvian, Polish and some Swedish and German along the coast, while Great Russian, White Russian and Ukrainian were separate language groups farther east. Agricultural yields throughout eastern Europe remained low and, in fact, had changed little from the 16th century. There was no significant rural surplus and therefore no really prosperous towns. The dread cholera, coming out of Bengal in 1826, reached south Russia, then Poland and the Baltic by 1830, before going on to Western Europe. (Ref. 8 , 260 , 140 )

Southern baltic area

The southern shore of the Baltic remained throughout this period basically divided between Russia and Germany. Poland remained dispersed within the three great empires of Europe, but life went on. The world's first sugar-beet factory was built in Silesia in 1801. Some quivers of hope appeared when Napoleon marched into Warsaw at the end of 1806 and the people at first felt that he was a savior and about to free their country. The Russian troops had fallen back to their own border after several battles with the French, but Poland did not survive the Vienna Congress. Once again the Poles revolted in 1830 and declared their independence in Warsaw in 1831, but Czar Nicholas' army quickly crushed them in the battle of Ostroleka, each side suffering some 6,000 casualties. Under Nicholas' orders an internal campaign attempted to eliminate all traces of dissidence. Polish universities were suppressed and the Polish army disbanded. Prussia gave Russia moral support in these activities. (Ref. 8 , 211 , 135 )

Nicholas' successor, Alexander II, at first tried some reconciliation, allowing exiles to return, the Catholic Church to function and created a new Warsaw University. But those attempts at reform did not placate the Polish people and religious ceremonies were used as political demonstrations. When an attempt was made to conscript dissident Polish youths into the Russian army, hundreds of young men fled to to the forests and in January, 1863 a revolutionary committee called for an insurrection. It began with an attack on a Russian soldiers' barracks and the Poles were actually joined by White Russians and some Ukrainians who wanted agrarian reform. But the political and social diversity involved allowed General Muraviev and Field Marshal Paskenvich to put peasant against landlord and in spite of two years of guerilla warfare against the Russian army, then the largest in Europe, the Poles lost again. There followed wholesale executions, confiscations and deportations. Subsequently Poland became the most industrialized province of the Russian Empire, producing large amounts of textiles, coal and iron. In the last third of the century, the Russian imprint on Poland became ever more evident. (Ref. 56 )

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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