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Eastern europe

For centuries there had been a correlation between traffic on the Baltic Sea and prosperity of Eastern Europe. After 1581, when Russia lost Narva in Estonia, as noted elsewhere, Moscovy diverted its trade to overland routes and the Baltic trade diminished, only to be refurbished when the Thirty Years War cut the land traffic through Central Europe. Perhaps in connection with the above, huge areas from the Baltic to the Black Sea reverted to a "second serfdom"

The term is Braudel's (Ref. 292 ), page 265
. The peasant was being ever more firmly attached to the land and he was losing mobility and the right to free himself. Gradually through the century, the days of compulsory labor were increased in Poland, Hungary, Livonia and Moscovy. The need for food and raw materials to be shipped to the West and the decline of cities and rise of feudal lords all played a part in this. (Ref. 292 )

Southern baltic area

As in the past, Sweden, Denmark, Russia and Poland all competed in this century for domination of the Baltic area. Of the original Balt tribes, the Letts had now become Latvians and the Curonians were Lettonized in this century. The Prussians were extinct as a people, but the Lithuanians remained strong and numerous. Until the middle of the century the Teutonic Knights held Livonia, Estonia and Courland and their stories thereafter will be taken up in a later paragraph. After somewhat of a poor start in the century, with the loss of the left bank of the Dnieper in 1503 and the city of Smolensk in 1514, both in wars with Russia, Poland-then enjoyed a Golden Age under Sigismund I and II, up to 1572. Both rulers were men of culture and spirit and gave religious thought and worship a complete freedom. Although there were interval wars with other powers for control of the Baltic, Poland prospered and remained a major European state. The power of the lesser nobility continued to grow, however, and all efforts of the kings to strengthen royal power, reform the government and establish a more modern army and administration met with failure and Poland gradually became transformed into a republic. Lithuania and Poland continued to be closely associated and the kings of Poland were usually also the Grand Dukes of Lithuania. As was true all across northern Europe, beer was consumed in large amounts - the peasants drinking three liters a day. (Ref. 260 )

The Livonian War began in 1557 and was an armed dispute involving all the powers bordering the Baltic. As the Russians moved in from the east, Sweden took Estonia and the Danes acquired part of Courland. In 1561 Poland took part of Livonia and insisted on the Polish language and laws and the Catholic religion, but within two years Ivan the Terrible of Russia had re-conquered this area. Russia and Sweden continued the battles until 1582 with Narva falling to the latter in 1581, but the Pole's fighting had pretty well ceased by 1571, probably due to their preoccupation with their relationship with

Lithuania. In spite of opposition by the Lithuanian common people, Lithuania officially merged with Poland in 1569. Subsequently the two nations had a common sovereign and a common Diet, although Lithuania retained some separate administration and army. Russian threats to Lithuania were probably the deciding factors in forcing this union, because Russia had already taken the Ukraine territory, including Kiev. By the Polish union, Lithuania apparently was able to save White Russia from Ivan. (Ref. 135 , 61 )

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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