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Eastern europe

For centuries there had been a correlation between traffic on the Baltic Sea and prosperity of Eastern Europe. After 1581, when Russia lost Narva in Estonia, as noted elsewhere, Moscovy diverted its trade to overland routes and the Baltic trade diminished, only to be refurbished when the Thirty Years War cut the land traffic through Central Europe. Perhaps in connection with the above, huge areas from the Baltic to the Black Sea reverted to a "second serfdom"

The term is Braudel's (Ref. 292 ), page 265
. The peasant was being ever more firmly attached to the land and he was losing mobility and the right to free himself. Gradually through the century, the days of compulsory labor were increased in Poland, Hungary, Livonia and Moscovy. The need for food and raw materials to be shipped to the West and the decline of cities and rise of feudal lords all played a part in this. (Ref. 292 )

Southern baltic area

As in the past, Sweden, Denmark, Russia and Poland all competed in this century for domination of the Baltic area. Of the original Balt tribes, the Letts had now become Latvians and the Curonians were Lettonized in this century. The Prussians were extinct as a people, but the Lithuanians remained strong and numerous. Until the middle of the century the Teutonic Knights held Livonia, Estonia and Courland and their stories thereafter will be taken up in a later paragraph. After somewhat of a poor start in the century, with the loss of the left bank of the Dnieper in 1503 and the city of Smolensk in 1514, both in wars with Russia, Poland-then enjoyed a Golden Age under Sigismund I and II, up to 1572. Both rulers were men of culture and spirit and gave religious thought and worship a complete freedom. Although there were interval wars with other powers for control of the Baltic, Poland prospered and remained a major European state. The power of the lesser nobility continued to grow, however, and all efforts of the kings to strengthen royal power, reform the government and establish a more modern army and administration met with failure and Poland gradually became transformed into a republic. Lithuania and Poland continued to be closely associated and the kings of Poland were usually also the Grand Dukes of Lithuania. As was true all across northern Europe, beer was consumed in large amounts - the peasants drinking three liters a day. (Ref. 260 )

The Livonian War began in 1557 and was an armed dispute involving all the powers bordering the Baltic. As the Russians moved in from the east, Sweden took Estonia and the Danes acquired part of Courland. In 1561 Poland took part of Livonia and insisted on the Polish language and laws and the Catholic religion, but within two years Ivan the Terrible of Russia had re-conquered this area. Russia and Sweden continued the battles until 1582 with Narva falling to the latter in 1581, but the Pole's fighting had pretty well ceased by 1571, probably due to their preoccupation with their relationship with

Lithuania. In spite of opposition by the Lithuanian common people, Lithuania officially merged with Poland in 1569. Subsequently the two nations had a common sovereign and a common Diet, although Lithuania retained some separate administration and army. Russian threats to Lithuania were probably the deciding factors in forcing this union, because Russia had already taken the Ukraine territory, including Kiev. By the Polish union, Lithuania apparently was able to save White Russia from Ivan. (Ref. 135 , 61 )

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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