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After Julius Caesar massacred the Swiss, as noted in a paragraph above, he proceeded in the next eight years to "pacify" all of Gaul, taking some eight hundred towns and killing, by his own count, 1,292,000 men, women and children. He may have enslaved nearly another 2,000,000. In 55 B.C. Caesar experienced and described the greatest naval battle that he had ever been called upon to mount

According to Barry Fell in America B.C. (Ref. 65 ), Caesar described this sea battle in "De Bello Gallico"
. His opponents were the Celts of Brittany and their allies from Britain, who had no less than 220 ships, all larger than and superior in construction to those of the Romans under Admiral Rutus. These vessels, which towered over the Roman galleys, had the capability of crossing the Atlantic (Barry Fell's concept) and were apparently under the leadership of the Veneti of Armorica with their allies, the Curiosolites, the Venelli of the Channell Islands and Cherbourg, the Namnetes and Lexovii of Normandy. The high-bowed, graceful ships propelled by the wind were only defeated when the Romans hurled falces into the rigging of the Celtic vessels, then rowing away, tearing out the rigging. Then grappling irons were thrown and the 200 men in each trireme would board the Celtic vessel and in hand-to-hand combat they finally won. (Ref. 194 , 65 )


On land it required a great engineering feat for Caesar's legions to breach the "murus galliciul", a box-like grid of timbers filled with rubble and stone that surrounded the Celt town of Avaricum (present Bourges, in the center of France) and then slaughter the 40,000 people within. The Gauls at last rallied behind a young chief, Vercingetorix, who first had his people burn their fields and towns as they retreated so that the Roman troops could not live off the land, and then he initiated guerrilla warfare to cut off new supplies to the Roman troops. Vercingetorix was finally cornered in the hills of eastern, central France behind some fortifications. Caesar further surrounded these with nine and a half miles of fortifications of his own to try and contain the Celtic chieftain. Even then Vercingetorix slipped out some cavalry by night and had them gather an additional quarter of a million Gauls from some forty different tribes. In the interim Caesar had built still another circle of fortifications fourteen miles in circumference, facing outward to meet the Gallic reinforcements. For days the battles raged, with the methodical butchery of the 40,000 legionnaires of Rome finally prevailing. Vercingetorix emerged alone from the fort of Alesia, surrendered and was taken prisoner to Rome where he was paraded through the Forum and finally strangled to death some six years later. Caesar allegedly obtained enough slaves after Alesia to give one to each of his legionaires. The course of Gallic civilization was all down-hill from this time on. (Ref. 194 , 91 , 213 )

British isles

The Belgic tribes were the last of the successive waves of Celts into Britain. They were a people of chariots and horses who introduced a coinage of silver and copper and established themselves as a tribal aristocracy. The Belgic capital was Colchester. The most ancient lettering known in Britain is to be found on the Belgic coins. This tribe seems to have been a mixture of Celtic and Teutonic origin from the region of the lower Rhine. Their new country produced corn, cattle, gold, silver, iron, hides, slaves and hunting dogs. Caesar crossed the channel starting at midnight August 26, 55 B.C. with 80 transports for his legions, experiencing considerable trouble in so doing, with the loss of some ships and men. He won a few victories over the Belgae under their leader, Cassivellaunus, but hastily departed England before winter set in. (Ref. 43 , 91 )

Scotland and Ireland were probably not yet involved in these new invasions and remained essentially as in the last century.


According to Tacitus, writing about A.D. 100, Sweden in the first century B.C. was dominated by the Suione Teutonic tribe. Scandinavia was never entered by the Romans, although trade was carried on with Danish amber, fur and various slaves exchanged for several Roman products, including wines and some iron objects.

Eastern europe

In this and the past century the Germanic Goths had appeared around Sweden and the Baltic Sea and started migration down into northeastern Germany. Just to the east of them were the Finno-Ugric speaking Estonians and just south of them in the Polish area and extending into middle Russia were Slavs. In southern Russia the Sarmatians were in the ascendancy and they spread out well to the east to the Caspian.

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Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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