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After Julius Caesar massacred the Swiss, as noted in a paragraph above, he proceeded in the next eight years to "pacify" all of Gaul, taking some eight hundred towns and killing, by his own count, 1,292,000 men, women and children. He may have enslaved nearly another 2,000,000. In 55 B.C. Caesar experienced and described the greatest naval battle that he had ever been called upon to mount

According to Barry Fell in America B.C. (Ref. 65 ), Caesar described this sea battle in "De Bello Gallico"
. His opponents were the Celts of Brittany and their allies from Britain, who had no less than 220 ships, all larger than and superior in construction to those of the Romans under Admiral Rutus. These vessels, which towered over the Roman galleys, had the capability of crossing the Atlantic (Barry Fell's concept) and were apparently under the leadership of the Veneti of Armorica with their allies, the Curiosolites, the Venelli of the Channell Islands and Cherbourg, the Namnetes and Lexovii of Normandy. The high-bowed, graceful ships propelled by the wind were only defeated when the Romans hurled falces into the rigging of the Celtic vessels, then rowing away, tearing out the rigging. Then grappling irons were thrown and the 200 men in each trireme would board the Celtic vessel and in hand-to-hand combat they finally won. (Ref. 194 , 65 )

NOTE: Insert Map 27: GAUL IN CAESAR'S TIME

On land it required a great engineering feat for Caesar's legions to breach the "murus galliciul", a box-like grid of timbers filled with rubble and stone that surrounded the Celt town of Avaricum (present Bourges, in the center of France) and then slaughter the 40,000 people within. The Gauls at last rallied behind a young chief, Vercingetorix, who first had his people burn their fields and towns as they retreated so that the Roman troops could not live off the land, and then he initiated guerrilla warfare to cut off new supplies to the Roman troops. Vercingetorix was finally cornered in the hills of eastern, central France behind some fortifications. Caesar further surrounded these with nine and a half miles of fortifications of his own to try and contain the Celtic chieftain. Even then Vercingetorix slipped out some cavalry by night and had them gather an additional quarter of a million Gauls from some forty different tribes. In the interim Caesar had built still another circle of fortifications fourteen miles in circumference, facing outward to meet the Gallic reinforcements. For days the battles raged, with the methodical butchery of the 40,000 legionnaires of Rome finally prevailing. Vercingetorix emerged alone from the fort of Alesia, surrendered and was taken prisoner to Rome where he was paraded through the Forum and finally strangled to death some six years later. Caesar allegedly obtained enough slaves after Alesia to give one to each of his legionaires. The course of Gallic civilization was all down-hill from this time on. (Ref. 194 , 91 , 213 )

British isles

The Belgic tribes were the last of the successive waves of Celts into Britain. They were a people of chariots and horses who introduced a coinage of silver and copper and established themselves as a tribal aristocracy. The Belgic capital was Colchester. The most ancient lettering known in Britain is to be found on the Belgic coins. This tribe seems to have been a mixture of Celtic and Teutonic origin from the region of the lower Rhine. Their new country produced corn, cattle, gold, silver, iron, hides, slaves and hunting dogs. Caesar crossed the channel starting at midnight August 26, 55 B.C. with 80 transports for his legions, experiencing considerable trouble in so doing, with the loss of some ships and men. He won a few victories over the Belgae under their leader, Cassivellaunus, but hastily departed England before winter set in. (Ref. 43 , 91 )

Scotland and Ireland were probably not yet involved in these new invasions and remained essentially as in the last century.

Scandinavia

According to Tacitus, writing about A.D. 100, Sweden in the first century B.C. was dominated by the Suione Teutonic tribe. Scandinavia was never entered by the Romans, although trade was carried on with Danish amber, fur and various slaves exchanged for several Roman products, including wines and some iron objects.

Eastern europe

In this and the past century the Germanic Goths had appeared around Sweden and the Baltic Sea and started migration down into northeastern Germany. Just to the east of them were the Finno-Ugric speaking Estonians and just south of them in the Polish area and extending into middle Russia were Slavs. In southern Russia the Sarmatians were in the ascendancy and they spread out well to the east to the Caspian.

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Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
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Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
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Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Cied
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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