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Prince Caradoc, called "Caractus" by the Romans, was a Welsh leader who was not defeated until A.D. 50 after he was betrayed by Queen Cartimandus of the Brigantes (Ref. 18 ) and he was taken prisoner to Rome. In Wales, the Romans put in roads and worked copper and gold mines, but they could not pacify the Welsh who were not actually considered won for Rome until A.D. 78.


There was a proliferation of various Germanic tribes throughout Norway and Denmark. The Swedish peninsula was dominated by the Suione tribe, while the island of Gotland and other Baltic islands were probably inhabited chiefly by Goths. Snorre Sturlasson, a learned Icelandic scribe, described the origin and ancestral home of the Scandinavian kings as on the border between Europe and Asia along the eastern shores of the Black Sea.

This work has been translated by Holtsmark and Seip

Taken from Thor Heyerdahl (Ref. 118 ), page 127.
Snorre gives a detailed, geographical account of the early migration through Europe, passing from Saxony into Denmark, Sweden and Norway, having been chased out of the Caucasus by the ravaging Roman armies and led by the Viking King Odin. Snorre named thirty kings before reaching the generation of Harold Fairhair, of which we shall hear more later in the 9th century.

Rich Stone Age finds show that from prehistoric times the Finnish peninsula has been the meeting place of peoples from Russia, Scandinavia and central Europe. Ancient Lapp and Nordic stocks went north, as Finno-Ugrian speaking peoples came in from the east.

In the century under consideration there were three groups of people: The Karelians, who were a dark, short, brachycephalic people entering from the southeast; the Tavastians, with high cheek-bones coming across the Gulf of Finland; and the Finns, proper, from the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland. (Ref. 95 , 61 ) All of these northern people were probably excellent seamen. A forty-two foot, slender, rowing canoe has been found in Denmark dating to this century.

Eastern europe

Baltic area

Estonians had already settled on the southern Baltic coast, while Goths inhabited the Baltic islands and perhaps some of the south shore, particularly in the Vistula River basin of Poland. Eastward were the Balts (Letts), who eventually became the Latvians, Lithuanians and the now extinct Old Prussians. The language was an individual, separate Indo-European group entity, neither Germanic nor Slavic. The Roman Tacitus, writing in this century, called the Estonians the "Aesti". (Ref. 48 , 175 )


Most of Russia was still sparsely inhabited but in the central, western part were chiefly Slavs and farther east and south there were Huns. In the Caucasus a new Sarmatian people, the Alans, may have been pushed there by the western expansion of the Kushans, whom we have met in Central Asia. These Alans, in turn, pushed the westward lying lazygians entirely out of Russia into the Theiss plain of modern Hungary and Yugoslavia. (Ref. 136 )

The Bay of Naples was a beautiful resort area with palatial summer villas for the emperors and other high officials. Because of the severe geological instability of the region, however, earthquakes and adjacent volcanoes have subsequently resulted in a sinking of the land and marked shifting of the city of Naples. (Ref. 281 )

Forward to Europe: A.D. 101 to 200

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Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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