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The great silver mines of Bolivia continued to operate during the century. The greatest mining camp was Potosi, 4,000 meters high in the Andes, where more than 100,000 people lived under most expensive conditions. A hen could cost 8 reals, an egg 2. Only the merchants made money. (Ref. 292 ) The Atacamanian Indians allowed a permanent contact between the populations of southern Peru and the tribes of central Chile - the Diaguites and Araucanians. They kept their own language until late in this century and had a population of about 10,000. One of the foods used by South American Indians on long journeys was prepared by taking 1/4 inch strips of lean game meat (later beef), dipping them in strong brine or rubbing them with salt, then rolling them in animal hide for 10 to 12 hours to allow re-absorption of the salt and release of some juices, then hanging the strips in the sun to dry and finally tying them in bundles. The Indians called this charqui which was later corrupted in the United States West to "jerked" beef or "jerky". (Ref. 211 )

Eastern coast and central south america

The alliance of Portugal with England during the war of the Spanish succession led to French attacks on Brazilian ports, Rio de Janeiro being sacked in 1711. There was continued trouble between the Portuguese and the converted Indians (the Paulistas), with some open warfare finally resulting in the pushing of the line of Portuguese territory farther westward into the jungles. In addition there was war (1710-11) between the native Brazilians of Olinda, capital of Pernambuco, and the Portuguese town of Recife. Again the latter won and made Recife the capital of Brazil until 1763 when it was moved to Rio de Janeiro because of the development of nearby gold mines. Actually the peak gold production was between the years of 1750 and 1755, when over 15 tons a year were mined. (Ref. 260 , 292 ) Throughout all this Brazil continued to provide Europe with sugar, coffee, cacao, rice and cotton, in addition to the gold, but since the Indian labor population had been almost obliterated by conquest and disease, they had been replaced by Africans.

By 1775 some 5 1/2 million slaves had been brought to America, although only 1 1/2 million had survived. (Ref. 8 ) By mid-century the minister the Marquis de Pombal introduced colonial reforms, including the removal of certain restrictions and taxes and the organization of trading companies. Actually some native Brazilians were appointed to important governmental posts, racial equality was advocated and defenses were improved, but the masters of Brazil were still the merchants of Portugal. The discovery of the rich gold and diamond finds early in the century had helped the economy considerably.

The Jesuits were expelled from their "reductions" in land-locked Paraguay among the Guarani Indians. The "reductions" were compounds with two priests, an Indian supervisor and many Indian farmers and laborers, ostensibly designed to acquaint the natives with Spanish religion and ways, but which really became commercial enterprises competing with other private businesses. The Guarani were language-related to the Tubi groups of Brazil. (Ref. 8 , 38 ) There were some serious clashes between Spain and Portugal over the area of Uruguay (then called "Banda Oriental") and although Spain created the Viceroyalty of La Plata in 1776 as a defensive as well as administrative measure, the final disposition of the territory was not finally decided until the next century. (Ref. 119 )

The fierce Araucanian Indians, some of whom had escaped the Spaniards in the 16th century by taking refuge with their stolen Spanish horses on the eastern slopes of the Andes, subsequently invaded the pampas and occasionally still threatened Buenos Aires in this century. (Ref. 62 ) The sale of thousands of mules a year to Peru and Brazil gave primitive Argentina a chance to share in the silver and gold of those countries. Some 2,000,000 mules may have been used in Central and South America for saddle or carrying (rarely for hauling). European oxen were used for - drawing heavy carts in the pampas and the gauchos were already riding great horses at the end of the century. Even so, whether traveling by horseback, mule or ox-cart, travelers across the Argentine deserts had to be sure of elaborate arrangements to find food and water. (Ref. 260 )

Forward to America: A.D. 1801 to 1900

    Choose different region

  • Intro to Era
  • Africa
  • Central and Northern Asia
  • Europe
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  • The Indian Subcontinent
  • The Near East
  • Pacific

In the Aleutian Islands prior to Bering's discovery in 1741 there were about 16,000 inhabitants with an advanced culture, for aborigines. They had a relative high standard of living with art, music, medicine, some surgery and mummification. After the Russians arrived the Aleuts were essentially enslaved and their numbers dropped to 3,200. (Ref. 310 ) It is interesting to note that before his famous voyages to the Pacific James Cook was an officer aboard the Eagle for 2 years after war started between England and France (1758) and then as master of a ship he charted much of the east coast of Canada between the years 1762 and 1769. He helped in the battle of Louisberg and Quebec on the St. Lawrence. (Ref. 302 )

After a revolt in the Windward Islands in the 1,790s, "Black Caribs" (descendants of Carib Indians and black slaves) were banished from St. Vincent and went to the Bay Islands off the coast of Honduras and then to the mainland coast, where many still live in isolated villages. (Ref. 308 )

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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