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The great silver mines of Bolivia continued to operate during the century. The greatest mining camp was Potosi, 4,000 meters high in the Andes, where more than 100,000 people lived under most expensive conditions. A hen could cost 8 reals, an egg 2. Only the merchants made money. (Ref. 292 ) The Atacamanian Indians allowed a permanent contact between the populations of southern Peru and the tribes of central Chile - the Diaguites and Araucanians. They kept their own language until late in this century and had a population of about 10,000. One of the foods used by South American Indians on long journeys was prepared by taking 1/4 inch strips of lean game meat (later beef), dipping them in strong brine or rubbing them with salt, then rolling them in animal hide for 10 to 12 hours to allow re-absorption of the salt and release of some juices, then hanging the strips in the sun to dry and finally tying them in bundles. The Indians called this charqui which was later corrupted in the United States West to "jerked" beef or "jerky". (Ref. 211 )

Eastern coast and central south america

The alliance of Portugal with England during the war of the Spanish succession led to French attacks on Brazilian ports, Rio de Janeiro being sacked in 1711. There was continued trouble between the Portuguese and the converted Indians (the Paulistas), with some open warfare finally resulting in the pushing of the line of Portuguese territory farther westward into the jungles. In addition there was war (1710-11) between the native Brazilians of Olinda, capital of Pernambuco, and the Portuguese town of Recife. Again the latter won and made Recife the capital of Brazil until 1763 when it was moved to Rio de Janeiro because of the development of nearby gold mines. Actually the peak gold production was between the years of 1750 and 1755, when over 15 tons a year were mined. (Ref. 260 , 292 ) Throughout all this Brazil continued to provide Europe with sugar, coffee, cacao, rice and cotton, in addition to the gold, but since the Indian labor population had been almost obliterated by conquest and disease, they had been replaced by Africans.

By 1775 some 5 1/2 million slaves had been brought to America, although only 1 1/2 million had survived. (Ref. 8 ) By mid-century the minister the Marquis de Pombal introduced colonial reforms, including the removal of certain restrictions and taxes and the organization of trading companies. Actually some native Brazilians were appointed to important governmental posts, racial equality was advocated and defenses were improved, but the masters of Brazil were still the merchants of Portugal. The discovery of the rich gold and diamond finds early in the century had helped the economy considerably.

The Jesuits were expelled from their "reductions" in land-locked Paraguay among the Guarani Indians. The "reductions" were compounds with two priests, an Indian supervisor and many Indian farmers and laborers, ostensibly designed to acquaint the natives with Spanish religion and ways, but which really became commercial enterprises competing with other private businesses. The Guarani were language-related to the Tubi groups of Brazil. (Ref. 8 , 38 ) There were some serious clashes between Spain and Portugal over the area of Uruguay (then called "Banda Oriental") and although Spain created the Viceroyalty of La Plata in 1776 as a defensive as well as administrative measure, the final disposition of the territory was not finally decided until the next century. (Ref. 119 )

The fierce Araucanian Indians, some of whom had escaped the Spaniards in the 16th century by taking refuge with their stolen Spanish horses on the eastern slopes of the Andes, subsequently invaded the pampas and occasionally still threatened Buenos Aires in this century. (Ref. 62 ) The sale of thousands of mules a year to Peru and Brazil gave primitive Argentina a chance to share in the silver and gold of those countries. Some 2,000,000 mules may have been used in Central and South America for saddle or carrying (rarely for hauling). European oxen were used for - drawing heavy carts in the pampas and the gauchos were already riding great horses at the end of the century. Even so, whether traveling by horseback, mule or ox-cart, travelers across the Argentine deserts had to be sure of elaborate arrangements to find food and water. (Ref. 260 )

Forward to America: A.D. 1801 to 1900

    Choose different region

  • Intro to Era
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  • Pacific

In the Aleutian Islands prior to Bering's discovery in 1741 there were about 16,000 inhabitants with an advanced culture, for aborigines. They had a relative high standard of living with art, music, medicine, some surgery and mummification. After the Russians arrived the Aleuts were essentially enslaved and their numbers dropped to 3,200. (Ref. 310 ) It is interesting to note that before his famous voyages to the Pacific James Cook was an officer aboard the Eagle for 2 years after war started between England and France (1758) and then as master of a ship he charted much of the east coast of Canada between the years 1762 and 1769. He helped in the battle of Louisberg and Quebec on the St. Lawrence. (Ref. 302 )

After a revolt in the Windward Islands in the 1,790s, "Black Caribs" (descendants of Carib Indians and black slaves) were banished from St. Vincent and went to the Bay Islands off the coast of Honduras and then to the mainland coast, where many still live in isolated villages. (Ref. 308 )

Questions & Answers

what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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