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Example

#include<iostream.h>

int main()

{

const int MAXI = 5;

const int MAXJ = 4;

int i, j;

for(i = 1; i<= MAXI; i++) // start of outer loop

{

cout<<"\ni is now "<<i<<endl;

for(j = 1; j<= MAXJ; j++) // start of inner loop

cout<<" j = "<<j; // end of inner loop

} // end of outer loop

cout<<endl;

return 0;

}

The output of the above program:

i is now 1

j = 1 j = 2 j = 3 j = 4

i is now 2

j = 1 j = 2 j = 3 j = 4

i is now 3

j = 1 j = 2 j = 3 j = 4

i is now 4

j = 1 j = 2 j = 3 j = 4

i is now 5

j = 1 j = 2 j = 3 j = 4

Do-while loops

The do..while statement executes a statement or statements once, then repeats the execution as long as a given conditional expression evaluates to true.

The do..while statement is used to create post-test loops.

The syntax for the do..while statement:

do {

statements;

} while (conditional expression);

Example:

do {

cout<<“\nEnter an identification number:”;

cin>>idNum;

} while (idNum<1000|| idNum>1999);

Flow chart of the do...while statement

Here, a request for a new id-number is repeated until a valid number is entered.

do {

cout<<“\nEnter an identification number:”;

cin>>idNum;

if (idNum<1000 || idNum>1999)

{

cout<<“An invalid number was just entered\n”;

cout<<“Please reenter an ID number /n”;

}

else break;

} while (true);

Structured programming with c++

The goto statement

In C++, goto statement – an unconditional branch, is just a legacy code from C language. The result of the goto statement is a change in the flow of control of the program to the first statement after the label specified in the goto statement.

Example:

start: // label

if (cout>10) go to end;

go to start;

end: cout<<endl;

The goto statement can lead to programs that are more difficult to debug, maintain, and modify.

Structured programming

During the 1960s, it became clear that the indiscriminate use of transfers of control through goto statements was the root of much difficulty experienced by programmer groups. The notion of so-called structured programming became almost synonymous with “ goto elimination .”

Bohm and Jacopini’s work demonstrated that all programs could be written in terms of only three control structures:

  • sequence structure
  • selection structure
  • repetition structure

The sequence structure is built into C++. Unless directed otherwise, the computer executes C++ statements one after the other in the order in which they are written. Below is a sequence structure.

Sequence Structure

C++ provides three types of selection structures:

- if statement (single-selection structure)

- if-else statement (double-selection structure)

- switch statement. (multiple-selection structure)

C++ provides three types of repetition structures:

- while statement

- do-while statement

- for statement

So C++ has only seven control structures: sequence, three types of selection and three types of repetition. Each C++ program is formed by combining as many of each type of control structures as is appropriate for the algorithm the program implements.

We will see that each control structure has only one entry point and one exit point . These single-entry/single-exit control structures make it easy to build programs.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals in c++. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10788/1.1
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