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int main()


const int MAXI = 5;

const int MAXJ = 4;

int i, j;

for(i = 1; i<= MAXI; i++) // start of outer loop


cout<<"\ni is now "<<i<<endl;

for(j = 1; j<= MAXJ; j++) // start of inner loop

cout<<" j = "<<j; // end of inner loop

} // end of outer loop


return 0;


The output of the above program:

i is now 1

j = 1 j = 2 j = 3 j = 4

i is now 2

j = 1 j = 2 j = 3 j = 4

i is now 3

j = 1 j = 2 j = 3 j = 4

i is now 4

j = 1 j = 2 j = 3 j = 4

i is now 5

j = 1 j = 2 j = 3 j = 4

Do-while loops

The do..while statement executes a statement or statements once, then repeats the execution as long as a given conditional expression evaluates to true.

The do..while statement is used to create post-test loops.

The syntax for the do..while statement:

do {


} while (conditional expression);


do {

cout<<“\nEnter an identification number:”;


} while (idNum<1000|| idNum>1999);

Flow chart of the do...while statement

Here, a request for a new id-number is repeated until a valid number is entered.

do {

cout<<“\nEnter an identification number:”;


if (idNum<1000 || idNum>1999)


cout<<“An invalid number was just entered\n”;

cout<<“Please reenter an ID number /n”;


else break;

} while (true);

Structured programming with c++

The goto statement

In C++, goto statement – an unconditional branch, is just a legacy code from C language. The result of the goto statement is a change in the flow of control of the program to the first statement after the label specified in the goto statement.


start: // label

if (cout>10) go to end;

go to start;

end: cout<<endl;

The goto statement can lead to programs that are more difficult to debug, maintain, and modify.

Structured programming

During the 1960s, it became clear that the indiscriminate use of transfers of control through goto statements was the root of much difficulty experienced by programmer groups. The notion of so-called structured programming became almost synonymous with “ goto elimination .”

Bohm and Jacopini’s work demonstrated that all programs could be written in terms of only three control structures:

  • sequence structure
  • selection structure
  • repetition structure

The sequence structure is built into C++. Unless directed otherwise, the computer executes C++ statements one after the other in the order in which they are written. Below is a sequence structure.

Sequence Structure

C++ provides three types of selection structures:

- if statement (single-selection structure)

- if-else statement (double-selection structure)

- switch statement. (multiple-selection structure)

C++ provides three types of repetition structures:

- while statement

- do-while statement

- for statement

So C++ has only seven control structures: sequence, three types of selection and three types of repetition. Each C++ program is formed by combining as many of each type of control structures as is appropriate for the algorithm the program implements.

We will see that each control structure has only one entry point and one exit point . These single-entry/single-exit control structures make it easy to build programs.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals in c++. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10788/1.1
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