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In this section students will:
  • Simplify rational expressions.
  • Multiply rational expressions.
  • Divide rational expressions.
  • Add and subtract rational expressions.
  • Simplify complex rational expressions.

A pastry shop has fixed costs of $ 280 per week and variable costs of $ 9 per box of pastries. The shop’s costs per week in terms of x , the number of boxes made, is 280 + 9 x . We can divide the costs per week by the number of boxes made to determine the cost per box of pastries.

280 + 9 x x

Notice that the result is a polynomial expression divided by a second polynomial expression. In this section, we will explore quotients of polynomial expressions.

Simplifying rational expressions

The quotient of two polynomial expressions is called a rational expression    . We can apply the properties of fractions to rational expressions, such as simplifying the expressions by canceling common factors from the numerator and the denominator. To do this, we first need to factor both the numerator and denominator. Let’s start with the rational expression shown.

x 2 + 8 x + 16 x 2 + 11 x + 28

We can factor the numerator and denominator to rewrite the expression.

( x + 4 ) 2 ( x + 4 ) ( x + 7 )

Then we can simplify that expression by canceling the common factor ( x + 4 ) .

x + 4 x + 7

Given a rational expression, simplify it.

  1. Factor the numerator and denominator.
  2. Cancel any common factors.

Simplifying rational expressions

Simplify x 2 9 x 2 + 4 x + 3 .

( x + 3 ) ( x 3 ) ( x + 3 ) ( x + 1 ) Factor the numerator and the denominator . x 3 x + 1 Cancel common factor  ( x + 3 ) .
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Can the x 2 term be cancelled in [link] ?

No. A factor is an expression that is multiplied by another expression. The x 2 term is not a factor of the numerator or the denominator.

Simplify x 6 x 2 36 .

1 x + 6

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Multiplying rational expressions

Multiplication of rational expressions works the same way as multiplication of any other fractions. We multiply the numerators to find the numerator of the product, and then multiply the denominators to find the denominator of the product. Before multiplying, it is helpful to factor the numerators and denominators just as we did when simplifying rational expressions. We are often able to simplify the product of rational expressions.

Given two rational expressions, multiply them.

  1. Factor the numerator and denominator.
  2. Multiply the numerators.
  3. Multiply the denominators.
  4. Simplify.

Multiplying rational expressions

Multiply the rational expressions and show the product in simplest form:

( x + 5 ) ( x 1 ) 3 ( x + 6 ) ( 2 x 1 ) ( x + 5 )
( x + 5 ) ( x 1 ) 3 ( x + 6 ) ( 2 x 1 ) ( x + 5 ) Factor the numerator and denominator . ( x + 5 ) ( x 1 ) ( 2 x 1 ) 3 ( x + 6 ) ( x + 5 ) Multiply numerators and denominators . ( x + 5 ) ( x 1 ) ( 2 x 1 ) 3 ( x + 6 ) ( x + 5 ) Cancel common factors to simplify . ( x 1 ) ( 2 x 1 ) 3 ( x + 6 )  
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Multiply the rational expressions and show the product in simplest form:

x 2 + 11 x + 30 x 2 + 5 x + 6 x 2 + 7 x + 12 x 2 + 8 x + 16

( x + 5 ) ( x + 6 ) ( x + 2 ) ( x + 4 )

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Dividing rational expressions

Division of rational expressions works the same way as division of other fractions. To divide a rational expression by another rational expression, multiply the first expression by the reciprocal of the second. Using this approach, we would rewrite 1 x ÷ x 2 3 as the product 1 x 3 x 2 . Once the division expression has been rewritten as a multiplication expression, we can multiply as we did before.

Questions & Answers

Cos45/sec30+cosec30=
dinesh Reply
Cos 45 = 1/ √ 2 sec 30 = 2/√3 cosec 30 = 2. =1/√2 / 2/√3+2 =1/√2/2+2√3/√3 =1/√2*√3/2+2√3 =√3/√2(2+2√3) =√3/2√2+2√6 --------- (1) =√3 (2√6-2√2)/((2√6)+2√2))(2√6-2√2) =2√3(√6-√2)/(2√6)²-(2√2)² =2√3(√6-√2)/24-8 =2√3(√6-√2)/16 =√18-√16/8 =3√2-√6/8 ----------(2)
exercise 1.2 solution b....isnt it lacking
Miiro Reply
I dnt get dis work well
john Reply
what is one-to-one function
Iwori Reply
what is the procedure in solving quadratic equetion at least 6?
Qhadz Reply
Almighty formula or by factorization...or by graphical analysis
Damian
I need to learn this trigonometry from A level.. can anyone help here?
wisdom Reply
yes am hia
Miiro
tanh2x =2tanhx/1+tanh^2x
Gautam Reply
cos(a+b)+cos(a-b)/sin(a+b)-sin(a-b)=cotb ... pls some one should help me with this..thanks in anticipation
favour Reply
f(x)=x/x+2 given g(x)=1+2x/1-x show that gf(x)=1+2x/3
Ken Reply
proof
AUSTINE
sebd me some questions about anything ill solve for yall
Manifoldee Reply
cos(a+b)+cos(a-b)/sin(a+b)-sin(a-b)= cotb
favour
how to solve x²=2x+8 factorization?
Kristof Reply
x=2x+8 x-2x=2x+8-2x x-2x=8 -x=8 -x/-1=8/-1 x=-8 prove: if x=-8 -8=2(-8)+8 -8=-16+8 -8=-8 (PROVEN)
Manifoldee
x=2x+8
Manifoldee
×=2x-8 minus both sides by 2x
Manifoldee
so, x-2x=2x+8-2x
Manifoldee
then cancel out 2x and -2x, cuz 2x-2x is obviously zero
Manifoldee
so it would be like this: x-2x=8
Manifoldee
then we all know that beside the variable is a number (1): (1)x-2x=8
Manifoldee
so we will going to minus that 1-2=-1
Manifoldee
so it would be -x=8
Manifoldee
so next step is to cancel out negative number beside x so we get positive x
Manifoldee
so by doing it you need to divide both side by -1 so it would be like this: (-1x/-1)=(8/-1)
Manifoldee
so -1/-1=1
Manifoldee
so x=-8
Manifoldee
SO THE ANSWER IS X=-8
Manifoldee
so we should prove it
Manifoldee
x=2x+8 x-2x=8 -x=8 x=-8 by mantu from India
mantu
lol i just saw its x²
Manifoldee
x²=2x-8 x²-2x=8 -x²=8 x²=-8 square root(x²)=square root(-8) x=sq. root(-8)
Manifoldee
I mean x²=2x+8 by factorization method
Kristof
I think x=-2 or x=4
Kristof
x= 2x+8 ×=8-2x - 2x + x = 8 - x = 8 both sides divided - 1 -×/-1 = 8/-1 × = - 8 //// from somalia
Mohamed
i am in
Cliff
1KI POWER 1/3 PLEASE SOLUTIONS
Prashant Reply
hii
Amit
how are you
Dorbor
well
Biswajit
can u tell me concepts
Gaurav
Find the possible value of 8.5 using moivre's theorem
Reuben Reply
which of these functions is not uniformly cintinuous on (0, 1)? sinx
Pooja Reply
helo
Akash
hlo
Akash
Hello
Hudheifa
which of these functions is not uniformly continuous on 0,1
Basant Reply
Practice Key Terms 2

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Source:  OpenStax, Algebra and trigonometry. OpenStax CNX. Nov 14, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11758/1.6
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