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Distributed sparse random projections

A second method modifies the randomized gossiping approach by limiting the number of communications each node must perform, in order to reduce overall power consumption  [link] . Each data node takes M projections of its data, passing along information to a small set of L neighbors, and summing the observations; the resulting CS measurements are sparse, since N - L of each row's entries will be zero. Nonetheless, these projections can still be used as CS measurements with quality similar to that of full random projections. Since the CS measurement matrix formed by the data nodes is sparse, a relatively small amount of communication is performed by each encoding node and the overall power required for transmission is reduced.

Centralized algorithms

Decentralized algorithms are used when the sensed data must be routed to a single location; this architecture is common in sensor networks were low power, simple nodes perform sensing and a powerful central location performs data processing.

Compressive wireless sensing

Compressive wireless sensing (CWS) emphasizes the use of synchronous communication to reduce the transmission power of each sensor  [link] . In CWS, each sensor calculates a noisy projection of their data sample. Each sensor then transmits the calculated value by analog modulation and transmission of a communication waveform. The projections are aggregated at the central location by the receiving antenna, with further noise being added. In this way, the fusion center receives the CS measurements, from which it can perform reconstruction using knowledge of the random projections.

A drawback of this method is the required accurate synchronization. Although CWS is constraining the power of each node, it is also relying on constructive interference to increase the power received by the data center. The nodes themselves must be accurately synchronized to know when to transmit their data. In addition, CWS assumes that the nodes are all at approximately equal distances from the fusion center, an assumption that is acceptable only when the receiver is far away from the sensor network. Mobile nodes could also increase the complexity of the transmission protocols. Interference or path issues also would have a large effect on CWS, limiting its applicability.

If these limitations are addressed for a suitable application, CWS does offer great power benefits when very little is known about the data beyond sparsity in a fixed basis. Distortion will be proportional to M - 2 α / ( 2 α + 1 ) , where α is some positive constant based on the network structure. With much more a priori information about the sensed data, other methods will achieve distortions proportional to M - 2 α .

Distributed compressive sensing

Distributed Compressive Sensing (DCS) provides several models for combining neighboring sparse signals, relying on the fact that such sparse signals may be similar to each other, a concept that is termed joint sparsity  [link] . In an example model, each signal has a common component and a local innovation, with the commonality only needing to be encoded once while each innovation can be encoded at a lower measurement rate. Three different joint sparsity models (JSMs) have been developed:

  1. Both common signal and innovations are sparse;
  2. Sparse innovations with shared sparsity structure;
  3. Sparse innovations and dense common signal.

Although JSM 1 would seem preferable due to the relatively limited amount of data, only JSM 2 is computationally feasible for large sensor networks; it has been used in many applications  [link] . JSMs 1 and 3 can be solved using a linear program, which has cubic complexity on the number of sensors in the network.

DCS, however, does not address the communication or networking necessary to transmit the measurements to a central location; it relies on standard communication and networking techniques for measurement transmission, which can be tailored to the specific network topology.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
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for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, An introduction to compressive sensing. OpenStax CNX. Apr 02, 2011 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11133/1.5
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