# 11.3 The chi-square distribution using spreadsheets to calculate

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Basic directions on how to use Google Spreadsheet and Excel to calculate and display Chi-Square results for bivariate proportional data.

## The chi-square distribution using spreadsheets

In this section we will discuss techniques using spreadsheet for exploring Chi-Square

## Hypothesis testing formulas

In Excel and in Google Spreadsheet we will need to enter equations (as we did before) to generate the Chi-Square Expected Values before using the built in formulas. The built in formulas ask for the actual values and the expected values. To generate these values, we have created the following demonstration using the example 11.2 from the chapter. You can generate this type of contingency table using Pivot Tables. We will demonstrate how to use that table to create a table for expected values.

A B C D E
2 Type of Volunteer 1-3 hrs. 4-6 hrs. 7-9 hrs. Row Total
3 Community College Students 111 96 48 255
4 Four-Year College Students 96 133 61 290
5 Nonstudents 91 150 53 294
6 Column Total 298 379 162 839

Using the cell addresses as above I will create the expected values using these formulas.

You will now have the data you need to use the Chisq.test formula. Pick a cell on your spreadsheet where you would like the results. For this example we picked cell B16, so in cell A16 I entered my label. In cell B16 I typed, =chisq.test. The menu then pops up and lets you know to enter the actual values and the expected values. Once you select the cells that contain your actual and expected values the p-value for the chi-square test will appear. Observe the following two screenshots.

If you are more interested in the actual Chi-Square calculation based on the sum of the (observed-expected)^2 / expected rather than the p-value output which is given by the above formula, we would need to create one more set of data, to create the Chi-Square sum value below you will see the set up.

These values will produce the following results.

A Chi-Square sum value of 12.99

## Displaying chi-square results:

To graph Chi-Square Distribution use the “Statistics Online Computational Resources (SOCR)” (just as in the previous chapter) at http://socr.ucla.edu/htmls/SOCR_Distributions.html has in the dropdown menu for SOCR distribution the Chi-Square distribution. For the Chi-Square distribution, you will only need the Degrees of Freedom (c-1)*(r-1). You can then enter your right cut off values (which in this case will be your critical values). Below is a graph of the Chi distribution for the above example.

Note that our value of 12.99 gives us the probability value that we calculated using the Excel chisq.test.

## Optional classroom exercise:

At your computer, try to use some of these tools to work out your homework problems or check homework that you have completed to see if the results are the same or similar.

#### Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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