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[link] lists the derivation of the names of the Group 13 (IIIA) elements.

Derivation of the names of each of the alkali metal elements.
Element Symbol Name
Boron B From the Arabic word buraq or the Persian word burah for the mineral borax
Aluminium (Aluminum) Al From alum
Gallium Ga From Named after the Latin word for France (Gaul) Gallia
Indium In Latin rubidus meaning deepest red
Thalium Tl From the Latin thallus meaning sprouting green twig
Aluminium is the international spelling standardized by the IUPAC, but in the United States it is more commonly spelled as aluminum.

Discovery

Boron

Borax (a mixture of Na 2 B 4 O 7 .4H 2 O and Na 2 B 4 O 7 .10H 2 O) was known for thousands of years. In Tibet it was known by the Sanskrit name of tincal . Borax glazes were used in China in 300 AD, and the writings of the Arabic alchemist Geber ( [link] ) appear to mention it in 700 AD. However, it is known that Marco Polo brought some borax glazes back to Italy in the 13th century. In 1600 Agricola ( [link] ) in his treatise De Re Metallica reported the use of borax as a flux in metallurgy.

A drawing of the father of chemistry Abu Musa Jābir ibn Hayyān al azdi known by Geber; the Latinized form of Jabir (721 - 815). Geber was a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geologist, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician.
A painting of German author Georg Bauer (1494 - 1555), whose pen-name was the Latinized Georgius Agricola, was most probably the first person to be environmentally conscious.

Boron was not recognized as an element until its isolation by Sir Humphry Davy ( [link] ), Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac ( [link] ) and Louis Jacques Thénard ( [link] ) in 1808 through the reaction of boric acid and potassium. Davy called the element boracium . Jöns Jakob Berzelius ( [link] ) identified boron as an element in 1824.

British chemist and inventor Sir Humphry Davy FRS (1778 - 1829).
French chemist and physicist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778 –1850).
French chemist Louis Jacques Thénard (1777 - 1857).
Swedish chemist Friherre Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1779 - 1848).

Aluminum

Ancient Greeks and Romans used aluminum salts as dyeing mordants and as astringents for dressing wounds; alum (KAl(SO 4 ) 2 .12H 2 O) is still used as a styptic (an antihaemorrhagic agent). In 1808, Sir Humphry Davy ( [link] ) identified the existence of a metal base of alum, which he at first termed alumium and later aluminum.

The metal was first produced in 1825 (in an impure form) by Hans Christian Ørsted ( [link] ) by the reaction of anhydrous aluminum chloride with potassium amalgam. Friedrich Wöhler ( [link] ) repeated the experiments of Ørsted but suggested that Ørsted had only isolated potassium. By the use of potassium, [link] , he is credited with isolating aluminum in 1827. While Wöhler is generally credited with isolating aluminum, Ørsted should also be given credit.

Danish physicist and chemist Hans Christian Ørsted (1777 - 1851).
German chemist Friedrich Wöhler (1800 - 1882) also known for his synthesis of urea and, thus, the founding of the field of natural products synthesis.

In 1846 Henri Deville ( [link] ) improved Wöhler's method, and described his improvements in particular the use of sodium in place of the expensive potassium

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
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Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
waht is hydrating power of lithium carbonates
Mahar Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of the main group elements. OpenStax CNX. Aug 20, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11124/1.25
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