0.2 Preliminaries

 Page 1 / 1
The module provides a review of the background concepts needed for the study of analog and digital communications: the Fourier transform, various definitions of bandwith, the Dirac delta, frequency-domain representation of sinusoids, frequency-domain plotting in Matlab, linear time invariant (LTI) systems, linear filtering, lowpass filters, and Matlab design of lowpass filters.

Fourier transform (ft)

Definition:

$\begin{array}{ccc}\hfill W\left(f\right)& =& {\int }_{-\infty }^{\infty }w\left(t\right){e}^{-j2\pi ft}dt\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}=\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathcal{F}\left\{w\left(t\right)\right\}\hfill \\ \hfill w\left(t\right)& =& {\int }_{-\infty }^{\infty }W\left(f\right){e}^{j2\pi ft}df\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}=\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}{\mathcal{F}}^{-1}\left\{W\left(f\right)\right\}.\hfill \end{array}$

Properties:

• Linearity: $\mathcal{F}\left\{{c}_{1}{w}_{1}\left(t\right)+{c}_{2}{w}_{2}\left(t\right)\right\}={c}_{1}{W}_{1}\left(f\right)+{c}_{2}{W}_{2}\left(f\right)$ .
• Real-valued $w\left(t\right)\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}⇒\left\{\begin{array}{c}\text{conjugate symmetric}W\left(f\right)\\ |W\left(f\right)|\text{symmetric around}f=0\end{array}$ .

Dirac delta (or “continuous impulse”) $\delta \left(·\right)$

An infinitely tall and thin waveform with unit area :

that's often used to “kick” a system and see how it responds.

Key properties:

1. Sifting: ${\int }_{-\infty }^{\infty }w\left(t\right)\delta \left(t-q\right)dt=w\left(q\right)$ .
2. Time-domain impulse $\delta \left(t\right)$ has a flat spectrum:
$\mathcal{F}\left\{\delta \left(t\right)\right\}={\int }_{-\infty }^{\infty }\delta \left(t\right){e}^{-j2\pi ft}dt\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}=\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}1\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\text{(for}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\text{all}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}f\text{)}.$
3. Freq-domain impulse $\delta \left(f\right)$ corresponds to a DC waveform:
${\mathcal{F}}^{-1}\left\{\delta \left(f\right)\right\}={\int }_{-\infty }^{\infty }\delta \left(f\right){e}^{j2\pi ft}df\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}=\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}1\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\text{(for}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\text{all}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}t\text{)}.$

Frequency-domain representation of sinusoids

Notice from the sifting property that

${\mathcal{F}}^{-1}\left\{\delta \left(f-{f}_{o}\right)\right\}={\int }_{-\infty }^{\infty }\delta \left(f-{f}_{o}\right){e}^{j2\pi ft}df={e}^{j2\pi {f}_{o}t}.$

Thus, Euler's equations

$\begin{array}{ccc}\hfill cos\left(2\pi {f}_{o}t\right)& =& \frac{1}{2}{e}^{j2\pi {f}_{o}t}+\frac{1}{2}{e}^{-j2\pi {f}_{o}t}\hfill \\ \hfill sin\left(2\pi {f}_{o}t\right)& =& \frac{1}{2j}{e}^{j2\pi {f}_{o}t}-\frac{1}{2j}{e}^{-j2\pi {f}_{o}t}\hfill \end{array}$

and the Fourier transform pair ${e}^{j2\pi {f}_{o}t}↔\delta \left(f-{f}_{o}\right)$ imply that

$\begin{array}{ccc}\hfill \mathcal{F}\left\{cos\left(2\pi {f}_{o}t\right)\right\}& =& \frac{1}{2}\delta \left(f-{f}_{o}\right)+\frac{1}{2}\delta \left(f+{f}_{o}\right)\hfill \\ \hfill \mathcal{F}\left\{sin\left(2\pi {f}_{o}t\right)\right\}& =& \frac{1}{2j}\delta \left(f-{f}_{o}\right)-\frac{1}{2j}\delta \left(f+{f}_{o}\right).\hfill \end{array}$

Often we draw this as

Frequency domain via matlab

Fourier transform requires evaluation of an integral. What do we do if we can't define/solve the integral?

1. Generate (rate- $\frac{1}{{T}_{s}}$ ) sampled signal in MATLAB.
2. Plot magnitude of Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) using plottf.m (from course webpage).

Notice that plottf.m only plots frequencies $f\in \left[-\frac{1}{2{T}_{s}},\frac{1}{2{T}_{s}}\right)$ .

Linear time-invariant (lti) systems

An LTI system can be described by either its “impulse response” $h\left(t\right)$ or its “frequency response” $H\left(f\right)=\mathcal{F}\left\{h\left(t\right)\right\}$ .

Input/output relationships:

• Time-domain: Convolution with impulse response $h\left(t\right)$
• Freq-domain: Multiplication with freq response $H\left(f\right)$

Linear filtering

Freq-domain illustration of LPF, BPF, and HPF:

Lowpass filters

Ideal non-causal LPF (using $sinc\left(x\right):=\frac{sin\left(\pi x\right)}{\pi x}$ ):

Ideal LPF with group-delay t o :

A causal linear-phase LPF with group-delay t o :

but MATLAB can give better causal linear-phase LPFs...

In MATLAB, generate $\frac{1}{{T}_{s}}$ -sampled LPF impulse response via

h = firls(Lf, [0,fp,fs,1], [G,G,0,0])/Ts;

where...

The commands firpm and fir2 have the same interface, but yield slightly different results (often worse for our apps).

In MATLAB, perform filtering on $\frac{1}{{T}_{s}}$ -sampled signal x via

y = Ts*filter(h,1,x);   or   y = Ts*conv(h,x);

The routines firls,firpm,fir2 generate causal linear-phase filters with group delay $=\frac{\mathtt{Lf}}{2}$ samples. Thus, the filtered output y will be delayed by $\frac{\mathtt{Lf}}{2}$ samples relative to x .

what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!    By Abishek Devaraj By Anonymous User    By By