As HDTV (high-definition television) was being developed,
the FCC restricted this digital system to use in the samebandwidth (6 MHz) as its analog (AM) counterpart. HDTV
video is sampled on a
$1035\times 1840$ raster at 30 images per second for each of the
three colors. The least-acceptable picture received bytelevision sets located at an analog station's broadcast
perimeter has a signal-to-noise ratio of about 10 dB.
Using signal-to-noise ratio as the criterion, how
many bits per sample must be used to guarantee that ahigh-quality picture, which achieves a signal-to-noise
ratio of 20 dB, can be received by any HDTV set withinthe same broadcast region?
Assuming the digital television channel has the same
characteristics as an analog one, how much compressionmust HDTV systems employ?
Digital cellular telephones
In designing a digital version of a wireless telephone, you
must first consider certain fundamentals. First of all, thequality of the received signal, as measured by the
signal-to-noise ratio, must be at least as good as thatprovided by wireline telephones (30 dB) and the message
bandwidth must be the same as wireline telephone. Thesignal-to-noise ratio of the allocated wirelss channel,
which has a 5 kHz bandwidth, measured 100 meters from thetower is 70 dB. The desired range for a cell is 1 km. Can
a digital cellphone system be designed according to thesecriteria?
Optimal ethernet random access protocols
Assume a population of
$N$ computers want to transmit information on a random access
channel. The access algorithm works as follows.
Before transmitting, flip a coin that has
probability
$p$ of coming up
heads
If only one of the
$N$ computer's coins comes up heads, its transmission occurs
successfully, and the others must wait until thattransmission is complete and then resume the
algorithm.
If none or more than one head comes up, the
$N$ computers will either
remain silent (no heads) or a collision will occur (morethan one head). This unsuccessful transmission
situation will be detected by all computers once thesignals have propagated the length of the cable, and the
algorithm resumes (return to the beginning).
What is the optimal probability to use for flipping
the coin? In other words, what should
$p$ be to maximize the
probability that exactly one computer transmits?
What is the probability of one computer
transmitting when this optimal value of
$p$ is used as the number of
computers grows to infinity?
Using this
optimal probability, what is the average number of coinflips that will be necessary to resolve the access so
that one computer successfully transmits?
Evaluate this algorithm. Is it realistic? Is it
efficient?
Repeaters
Because signals
attenuate with distance from the transmitter,
repeaters are frequently employed for both analog
and digital communication. For example, let's assume that thetransmitter and receiver are
$D$ m apart, and a repeater is
positioned halfway between them (
[link] ). What the repater does is amplify its
received signal to exactly cancel the attenuationencountered along the first leg and to re-transmit the
signal to the ultimate receiver. However, the signal therepeater receives contains white noise as well as the
transmitted signal. The receiver experiences the same amountof white noise as the repeater.
What is the block diagram for this system?
For an amplitude-modulation communication system, what
is the signal-to-noise ratio of the demodulated signal atthe receiver? Is this better or worse than the
signal-to-noise ratio when no repeater is present?
For digital communication, we must consider the
system's capacity. Is the capacity larger with therepeater system than without it? If so, when; if not, why
not?
Designing a speech communication system
We want to examine both analog and digital communication alternatives for a dedicated speech transmission system.
Assume the speech signal has a 5 kHz bandwidth.The wireless link between transmitter and receiver is such that 200 watts of power can be received at a pre-assigned carrier frequency.
We have some latitude in choosing the transmission bandwidth, but the noise power added by the channel increases with bandwidth with a proportionality constant of 0.1 watt/kHz.
Design an analog system for sending speech under this scenario.
What is the received signal-to-noise ratio under these design constraints?
How many bits must be used in the A/D converter to achieve the same signal-to-noise ratio?
Is the bandwidth required by the digital channel to send the samples without error greater or smaller than the analog bandwidth?
Digital vs. analog
You are the Chairman/Chairwoman of the FCC.
The frequency band 3 MHz to 3.5 MHz has been allocated for a new “high-quality” AM band.Each station licensed for this band will transmit signals having a bandwidth of 10 kHz, twice the message bandwidth of what current stations can send.
How many stations can be allocated to this band and with what carrier frequencies?
Looking ahead, conversion to digital transmission is not far in the future.
The characteristics of the new digital radio system need to be established and you are the boss!Detail the characteristics of the analog-to-digital converter that must be used to prevent aliasing and ensure a signal-to-noise ratio of 25 dB.
Without employing compression, how many digital radio stations could be allocated to the band if each station used BPSK modulation?
Evaluate this design approach.
Questions & Answers
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?