# Introduction to digital signal processing

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Segue for DSP chapter.

Not only do we have analog signals --- signals that are real- or complex-valued functions of a continuous variable such as timeor space --- we can define digital ones as well. Digital signals are sequences , functions defined only for the integers. We thus use the notation $s(n)$ to denote a discrete-time one-dimensional signal such as a digital musicrecording and $s(m, n)$ for a discrete-"time" two-dimensional signal like a photo taken with a digital camera. Sequences are fundamentallydifferent than continuous-time signals. For example, continuity has no meaning for sequences.

Despite such fundamental differences, the theory underlying digital signal processing mirrors that for analog signals:Fourier transforms, linear filtering, and linear systems parallel what previous chapters described. These similaritiesmake it easy to understand the definitions and why we need them, but the similarities should not be construed as "analogwannabes." We will discover that digital signal processing is not an approximation to analog processing. We must explicitly worry about the fidelity of converting analogsignals into digital ones. The music stored on CDs, the speech sent over digital cellular telephones, and the video carried bydigital television all evidence that analog signals can be accurately converted to digital ones and back again.

The key reason why digital signal processing systems have a technological advantage today is the computer : computations, like the Fourier transform, can be performed quicklyenough to be calculated as the signal is produced,

Taking a systems viewpoint for the moment, a system that produces its output as rapidly as the input arises is said tobe a real-time system. All analog systems operate in real time; digital ones that depend on acomputer to perform system computations may or may not work in real time. Clearly, we need real-time signal processingsystems. Only recently have computers become fast enough to meet real-time requirements while performing non-trivialsignal processing.
and programmability means that the signal processing system can be easily changed. This flexibility has obvious appeal, andhas been widely accepted in the marketplace. Programmability means that we can perform signal processing operationsimpossible with analog systems (circuits). We will also discover that digital systems enjoy an algorithmic advantage that contributes to rapid processing speeds: Computations can be restructured innon-obvious ways to speed the processing. This flexibility comes at a price, a consequence of how computers work. How docomputers perform signal processing?

#### Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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