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Tegnologie

Graad 9

Hidrouliese en pneumatiese stelsels

Module 10

Die werking van ‘n hidrouliese stelsel

AKTIWITEIT 1:

Om die werking van ’n hidrouliese stelsel te beskryf

[LU 1.3, 2.3]

Pneumatiese en hidrouliese stelsels is sisteme wat beheer uitoefen sodat die inset-uitsetverhouding so verander dat take, met minder krag, vinniger verrig kan word.

  • Daar is twee soorte hidrouliese stelsels:
  • ’n Oop hidrouliese stelsel: Dit bestaan uit ‘n vloeistof wat onder druk die sisteem verlaat, byvoorbeeld water in ’n tuinslang met ’n drukkop.Die sisteem kan ook bestaan uit water wat in ’n pyp vloei waar daar ’n drukverskil is. Dink aan die groot voordeel wat die toestel aan besproeiingsboere bied.
  • ’n Geslote hidrouliese stelsel: Dit bestaan uit ’n verseëlde eenheid bestaande uit twee suiers wat met ’n pyp of reservoir aan mekaar verbind is. ’n Insetkrag op die kleiner suier word deur die vloeistof in alle rigtings voortgeplant en lewer ’n uitsetkrag op die groter suier. Omdat die druk in alle rigtings in die vloeistof voortgeplant word, kan die groter suier meer werk verrig vanweë sy groter oppervlak. Alle hidrouliese stelsels werk volgens hierdie beginsel.

  • Die werking van ’n hidrouliese stelsel kan ook met behulp van ’n spuit voorgestel word.
  • Die suier waarop die druk toegepas word , word die meester of insetspuit genoem en die spuit wat die uitwerking ondervind, word die bediener of uitsetspuit genoem.

Beskryf in jou eie woorde hoe ’n hidrouliese stelsel werk. Noem ook twee voorbeelde van hidrouliese stelsels wat algemeen gebruik word.

AKTIWITEIT 2:

Om die verspreiding van druk in ’n hidrouliese stelsel te ondersoek en te beskryf

[LU 1.3, 2.3]

  • Jy het die volgende items vir hierdie ondersoek nodig:
  • 2 x 10 mℓ-plastiekspuite genommer A en B
  • 1 x plastiekbuis
  • Vul die stelsel met water.
  • Maak die plastiekbuisie aan albei kante nat en heg dit aan die spuite soos in die illustrasie aangedui.

1. Druk die suier van silinder A, 2 cm in. Noteer jou waarneming van die afstandlewering by silinder B.

2. Druk die suier van silinder B, 2 cm in. Noteer jou waarneming van die afstandlewering by spuit A.

3. Is daar enige meganiese voordeel waargeneem?

4. Samevatting: Die verspreiding van druk in ’n hidrouliese stelsel.

AKTIWITEIT 3:

Om die werking van ’n pneumatiese stelsel te ondersoek en met dié van ’n hidrouliese stelsel te vergelyk

[LU 1.3, 2.3]

  • Maak plastiekspuite A en B droog en herhaal die ondersoek in aktiwiteit 2, maar trek lug in plaas van water in die silinder in.

1. Watter ooreenkoms is daar tussen hidrouliese en pneumatiese stelsels?

2. Watter verskil is daar tussen die stelsels ten opsigte van die effektiewe voortplanting van die druk?

AKTIWITEIT 4:

Om die uitwerking van die deursnee van die suierskyf op afstand- en kraglewering te ondersoek en te bespreek

[LU 1.3, 2.3]

Jy benodig die volgende items vir hierdie ondersoek:

  • 1 x 10 mℓ-silinder genommer A
  • 1 x 20 mℓ-silinder genommer C
  • ’n buisie
  • Verbind die silinders soos in die figuur aangedui en vul die stelsel met water.

1. Druk die suier van silinder A, 2 cm in. Noteer jou waarneming van die afstandlewering by silinder C.

Questions & Answers

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Dominic
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1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
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Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
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Source:  OpenStax, Tegnologie graad 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11070/1.1
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