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Natuurwetenskappe

Graad 5

Energie en verandering

Module 32

Die uitwerking van energie op die toestand van 'n stof

Aktiwiteit 1:

Om te kan verduidelik hoekom energie die toestand van 'n stof bepaal

[lu 2.1]

  • As gevolg van wisselende temperature word stowwe (materie) in die wêreld om ons voortdurend groter (uitsetting) of kleiner (inkrimping). Die meeste stowwe (vastestowwe, vloeistowwe of gasse) sit uit wanneer dit verhit word en krimp wanneer dit afgekoel word.

Alle materie bestaan uit klein deeltjies (atome) wat voortdurend heen en weer beweeg en teen mekaar bots. Die deeltjies en hul beweging is baie, baie klein en ons kan dit nie sien nie. Vir ons lyk 'n stuk yster bloot soos 'n harde, soliede stuk metaal, maar selfs die hardste metaal bestaan uit sulke bewegende deeltjies (atome).

Materie sit uit as dit verhit word omdat die atome waaruit dit bestaan energie absorbeer en dus meer beweeg en harder teen mekaar bots. Die atome word dus van mekaar af weg geforseer en die stof sit uit.

Wanneer die temperatuur daal (die stof verloor hitte), verloor die deeltjies energie en beweeg minder. Die spasie tussen hulle word kleiner omdat hulle minder teen mekaar bots, en die stof krimp.

Inkrimping

Uitsetting

Kom ons kyk nou na hierdie uitwerking van energie op vaste stowwe, vloeistowwe en gasse.

Verfris jou geheue. Voltooi die volgende sin deur die woorde vastestowwe of vloeistowwe of gasse in te vul:

By normale toestande (kamertemperatuur, gewone lugdruk) neem

die vorm van die houer waarin dit gehou word

aan, terwyl die fatsoen van nie verander nie

en die meeste in alle rigtings versprei en die

beskikbare ruimte vul.

Aktiwiteit 2:

Om die uitwerking van energie op vastestowwe te bepaal

[lu 1.2.1; 1.2.2; 1.3]

Jou onderwyser gaan 'n demonstrasie doen. Kyk mooi wat gebeur en beantwoord die vrae wat volg.

  • Hy / sy neem ‘n glashouer met ingelegde kos.
  • Hy / sy probeer die fles oopdraai. Dis glad nie so maklik nie.

Waarom?

  • Hy / sy hou die gedeelte met die deksel vir 'n rukkie onder 'n kraan lopende warm water of in 'n houer met warm water. Hy probeer weer die deksel afskroef.

Gaan dit makliker?

Verklaar:

  • Onthou dus: vaste stowwe sit uit as hulle verwarm word, maar almal sit nie eweveel uit nie. Metale sit meer uit as ander vaste stowwe.

Kom ons kyk na voorbeelde in ons alledaagse lewe:

Treinspore se stawe moet gelê word met spasies tussenin, want tydens verhitting (hoër temperature) sal die metaal uitsit en sonder die nodige spasies tussenin sal die spoor buig.

Die ruit vir 'n venster word gewoonlik kleiner as die raam gesny, omdat albei (veral as dit ‘n staalraam is) op warm dae uitsit en op koue dae inkrimp.

Wat kan gebeur indien die ruit presies in die raam pas?

Sien jy die verskil tussen die twee prente?

Verduidelik aan 'n maat wat plaasvind. Maak nou jul eie afleiding en skryf dit neer.

Kyk of jy die volgende in die wetenskaplaboratorium kan kry:

'n Saamgestelde staaf

'n Koperbal-en-ring

  1. Verhit die saamgestelde staaf in 'n vlammetjie (kers of spirituslampie). Wat gebeur?
  1. Watter metaal is aan die buitekant van die kromming?

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natuurwetenskappe graad 5. OpenStax CNX. Sep 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10980/1.2
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