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Sosiale wetenskappe: aardrykskunde

Graad 7

Kaartwerk

Module 11

Die lees, ontleding en vertolking van vertikale lugfoto’s en ortofotokaarte

  • Voordat van julle verwag kan word om vertikale lugfoto’s en ortofotokaarte verder te interpreteer, het julle heelwat meer inligting hieroor nodig.

‘n Vertikale lugfoto van ‘n gebied word vanuit ‘n vliegtuig reg van bo-af geneem.

Voordele

  • Die meeste voorwerpe is sigbaar;
  • Die uitleg van paaie en spoorlyne is duidelik sigbaar;
  • Hoë bome, berge en geboue word maklik herken aan die skaduwees wat hulle gooi.

Nadele

  • Die beeld wat jy sien, is van bo-af en dus ongewoon vir die mens. Dis ‘n ongewone gesigshoek wat baie oefening, kennis en ondervinding vereis om te kan lees.
  • Dit is in swart en wit en kan verwarrend wees.
  • Vertikale lugfoto’s word as basis gebruik wanneer topografiese kaarte geteken word. Inligting van die lugfoto word deur kartograwe (mense wat opgelei is om akkurate kaarte te teken) oorgedra op papier deur gebruik te maak van die internasionale simboolsleutel en kleure waarvan julle reeds geleer het.
  • Vandag is ortofotokaarte baie gewild vir kaartbestudering. Die eienskappe van die 1:50 000 topografiese kaart en dié van die vertikale lugfoto word gekombineer om ‘n ortofotokaart te teken. ‘n Ortofotokaart is dus ‘n vertikale lugfoto op ‘n laer vlak van 1:10 000, waarop kontoerlyne ingeteken is .
  • Kontoer-tussenruimtes van 5 meter word gebruik sodat baie fyn detail sigbaar is. Selfs sekere plekname, spoorlyne, paaie, ens., word op die foto gedruk. ‘n Mens kan dus die voorwerpe makliker identifiseer. Kaarte en foto’s het dus elkeen hulle besondere kenmerke, voordele en nadele. ‘n Mens kan eintlik net ‘n duidelike voorstelling van ‘n landskap vorm wanneer jy ‘n topografiese kaart en ‘n foto saam bestudeer.
  • ‘n Topografiese kaart is ‘n voorstelling van die aardoppervlakte volgens skaal en aan die hand van ‘n simboolsleutel. Dit gee ‘n duidelike, vereenvoudigde beeld waarop slegs bepaalde kenmerke getoon word. ‘n Topografiese kaart is dus nie altyd heeltemal akkuraat nie en kan ook verouderd wees.
  • ‘n Vertikale lugfoto en ortofotokaart is wonderlike hulpmiddels as dit saam met ‘n topografiese kaart gebruik word. Alleenlik dan kan noukeurige kaart- en fotolesings gedoen word.

1. Hoe kyk ‘n mens na ‘n vertikale lugfoto of ortofotokaart?

  • Grootte van voorwerpe

As die skaal van die lugfoto bereken is, kan die lengte van voorwerpe bepaal word en afstand en oppervlaktes kan bereken word. ‘n Roostervormige dorpsnedersetting se oppervlakte kan byvoorbeeld so bepaal word.

  • Vorme van voorwerpe
  • Mensgemaakte verskynsels is oor die algemeen reëlmatig. Dink hier maar aan geboue, omgeploegde landerye, paaie, spoorlyne en damwalle. Natuurlike voorwerpe en verskynsels is weer onreëlmatig, soos berge, riviere, woude en grasvelde.
  • Paaie is breë, liggrys lyne op ‘n foto. Nasionale paaie is gewoonlik reguit en sonder skerp draaie. Sekondêre paaie vertoon smaller en vertoon skerp draaie. Spoorlyne vertoon as smal, donkerder grys lyne met egalige draaie. Paaie sluit dikwels reghoekig bymekaar aan, terwyl spoorlyne geleidelik ineen loop.
  • Riviere is breë, donkergrys lyne, met kurwes en draaie soos die rivier deur ‘n area kronkel en sytakke by die hoofstroom aansluit. Die V-vorm van ‘n sytak-aansluiting wys ALTYD stroom-af en so kan die vloeirigting bepaal word.
  • Die tint of skakering van voorwerpe

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Aardrykskunde graad 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 09, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11020/1.1
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