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This collection comprises Chapter 1 of the book A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing, The Sparse Way(third edition, 2009) by Stéphane Mallat. The book's website at Academic Press ishttp://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/bookdescription.cws_home/714561/description#description The book's complementary materials are available athttp://wavelet-tour.com

Most digital measurement devices, such as cameras, microphones, or medical imaging systems, can be modeled as a linear transformation ofan incoming analog signal, plus noise due to intrinsic measurement fluctuations or to electronic noises. This linear transformationcan be decomposed into a stable analog-to-digital linear conversion followed by a discrete operator U that carries the specific transfer function of the measurement device. The resulting measured data can bewritten

Y [ q ] = U f [ q ] + W [ q ] ,

where f C N is the high-resolution signal we want to recover, and W [ q ] is the measurement noise. For a camera with an optic that is out of focus, the operator U is a low-pass convolution producing a blur. For a magnetic resonance imagingsystem, U is a Radon transform integrating the signal along rays and the number Q of measurements is smaller than N . In such problems, U is not invertible and recovering an estimate of f is an ill-posed inverse problem.

Inverse problems are among the most difficult signal-processing problems with considerable applications.When data acquisition is difficult, costly, or dangerous, or when the signal is degraded, super-resolution isimportant to recover the highest possible resolution information. This applies to satellite observations,seismic exploration, medical imaging, radar, camera phones, or degraded Internet videos displayed on high-resolution screens.Separating mixed information sources from fewer measurements is yet another super-resolution problem in telecommunication or audio recognition.

Incoherence, sparsity, and geometry play a crucial role in the solution of ill-defined inverse problems. With a sensing matrix U with random coefficients, Candès and Tao (candes-near-optimal)and Donoho (donoho-cs) proved that super-resolution becomes stable for signals having a sufficientlysparse representation in a dictionary. This remarkable result opens the door to new compression sensing devices and algorithmsthat recover high-resolution signals from a few randomized linear measurements.

Diagonal inverse estimation

In an ill-posed inverse problem,

Y = U f + W

the image space ImU = { U h : h C N } of U is of dimension Q smaller than the high-resolution space N where f belongs. Inverse problems include two difficulties. In the imagespace ImU , where U is invertible, its inverse may amplify the noise W , which then needs to be reduced by an efficient denoising procedure. In the null space NullU , all signals h are set to zero U h = 0 and thus disappear in the measured data Y . Recovering the projection of f in NullU requires using some strong prior information. A super-resolution estimator recovers an estimation of f in a dimension space larger than Q and hopefully equal to N , but this is not alwayspossible.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A wavelet tour of signal processing, the sparse way. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10711/1.3
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