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This collection comprises Chapter 1 of the book A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing, The Sparse Way(third edition, 2009) by Stéphane Mallat. The book's website at Academic Press ishttp://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/bookdescription.cws_home/714561/description#description The book's complementary materials are available athttp://wavelet-tour.com

Most digital measurement devices, such as cameras, microphones, or medical imaging systems, can be modeled as a linear transformation ofan incoming analog signal, plus noise due to intrinsic measurement fluctuations or to electronic noises. This linear transformationcan be decomposed into a stable analog-to-digital linear conversion followed by a discrete operator U that carries the specific transfer function of the measurement device. The resulting measured data can bewritten

Y [ q ] = U f [ q ] + W [ q ] ,

where f C N is the high-resolution signal we want to recover, and W [ q ] is the measurement noise. For a camera with an optic that is out of focus, the operator U is a low-pass convolution producing a blur. For a magnetic resonance imagingsystem, U is a Radon transform integrating the signal along rays and the number Q of measurements is smaller than N . In such problems, U is not invertible and recovering an estimate of f is an ill-posed inverse problem.

Inverse problems are among the most difficult signal-processing problems with considerable applications.When data acquisition is difficult, costly, or dangerous, or when the signal is degraded, super-resolution isimportant to recover the highest possible resolution information. This applies to satellite observations,seismic exploration, medical imaging, radar, camera phones, or degraded Internet videos displayed on high-resolution screens.Separating mixed information sources from fewer measurements is yet another super-resolution problem in telecommunication or audio recognition.

Incoherence, sparsity, and geometry play a crucial role in the solution of ill-defined inverse problems. With a sensing matrix U with random coefficients, Candès and Tao (candes-near-optimal)and Donoho (donoho-cs) proved that super-resolution becomes stable for signals having a sufficientlysparse representation in a dictionary. This remarkable result opens the door to new compression sensing devices and algorithmsthat recover high-resolution signals from a few randomized linear measurements.

Diagonal inverse estimation

In an ill-posed inverse problem,

Y = U f + W

the image space ImU = { U h : h C N } of U is of dimension Q smaller than the high-resolution space N where f belongs. Inverse problems include two difficulties. In the imagespace ImU , where U is invertible, its inverse may amplify the noise W , which then needs to be reduced by an efficient denoising procedure. In the null space NullU , all signals h are set to zero U h = 0 and thus disappear in the measured data Y . Recovering the projection of f in NullU requires using some strong prior information. A super-resolution estimator recovers an estimation of f in a dimension space larger than Q and hopefully equal to N , but this is not alwayspossible.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A wavelet tour of signal processing, the sparse way. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10711/1.3
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