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Metabolic compensation

Metabolic and renal compensation for respiratory diseases that can create acidosis revolves around the conservation of bicarbonate ions. In cases of respiratory acidosis, the kidney increases the conservation of bicarbonate and secretion of H + through the exchange mechanism discussed earlier. These processes increase the concentration of bicarbonate in the blood, reestablishing the proper relative concentrations of bicarbonate and carbonic acid. In cases of respiratory alkalosis, the kidneys decrease the production of bicarbonate and reabsorb H + from the tubular fluid. These processes can be limited by the exchange of potassium by the renal cells, which use a K + -H + exchange mechanism (antiporter).

Diagnosing acidosis and alkalosis

Lab tests for pH, CO 2 partial pressure (pCO 2 ), and HCO 3 can identify acidosis and alkalosis, indicating whether the imbalance is respiratory or metabolic, and the extent to which compensatory mechanisms are working. The blood pH value, as shown in [link] , indicates whether the blood is in acidosis, the normal range, or alkalosis. The pCO 2 and total HCO 3 values aid in determining whether the condition is metabolic or respiratory, and whether the patient has been able to compensate for the problem. [link] lists the conditions and laboratory results that can be used to classify these conditions. Metabolic acid-base imbalances typically result from kidney disease, and the respiratory system usually responds to compensate.

Reference values (arterial): pH: 7.35–7.45; pCO 2 : male: 35–48 mm Hg, female: 32–45 mm Hg; total venous bicarbonate: 22–29 mM. N denotes normal; ↑ denotes a rising or increased value; and ↓ denotes a falling or decreased value.
Types of Acidosis and Alkalosis
pH pCO 2 Total HCO 3
Metabolic acidosis N, then ↓
Respiratory acidosis N, then ↑
Metabolic alkalosis N, then↑
Respiratory alkalosis N, then ↓

Metabolic acidosis is problematic, as lower-than-normal amounts of bicarbonate are present in the blood. The pCO 2 would be normal at first, but if compensation has occurred, it would decrease as the body reestablishes the proper ratio of bicarbonate and carbonic acid/CO 2 .

Respiratory acidosis is problematic, as excess CO 2 is present in the blood. Bicarbonate levels would be normal at first, but if compensation has occurred, they would increase in an attempt to reestablish the proper ratio of bicarbonate and carbonic acid/CO 2 .

Alkalosis is characterized by a higher-than-normal pH. Metabolic alkalosis is problematic, as elevated pH and excess bicarbonate are present. The pCO 2 would again be normal at first, but if compensation has occurred, it would increase as the body attempts to reestablish the proper ratios of bicarbonate and carbonic acid/CO 2 .

Respiratory alkalosis is problematic, as CO 2 deficiency is present in the bloodstream. The bicarbonate concentration would be normal at first. When renal compensation occurs, however, the bicarbonate concentration in blood decreases as the kidneys attempt to reestablish the proper ratios of bicarbonate and carbonic acid/CO 2 by eliminating more bicarbonate to bring the pH into the physiological range.

Chapter review

Acidosis and alkalosis describe conditions in which a person's blood is, respectively, too acidic (pH below 7.35) and too alkaline (pH above 7.45). Each of these conditions can be caused either by metabolic problems related to bicarbonate levels or by respiratory problems related to carbonic acid and CO 2 levels. Several compensatory mechanisms allow the body to maintain a normal pH.

Watch this video to see a demonstration of the effect altitude has on blood pH. What effect does high altitude have on blood pH, and why?

Because oxygen is reduced, the respiratory rate increases to accommodate, and hyperventilation removes CO 2 faster than normal, resulting in alkalosis.

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Questions & Answers

where can we find the short bones
Chidi Reply
Carpal bones are examples of short bones
what is blood supply
on upper limb and lower limb
carpal bones
during pregnancy which would more increase size the mothers abdominal or pelvic cavity?
Nurmalyn Reply
pelvic cavity I think
What is anatomical position
define the main directional terms of the body
cris Reply
during physical exercise respiratory rate increace two student are discussing the mechanisms involved. student A claim they are positive feedback and student B claim negative feedback do you agree with student A or B and why
what is the physiology of circulation
please I mean the physiology of criculation
blood flow refers to the movement of blood through the vessels from arteries to the capillaries and then to the veins
during pregnancy, which would more size the mother's abdominal or pelvic cavity? explain
cris Reply
list and define the three plane of devision of the body
complete the following statements using correct directional terms for human being. 1. the navel is________to the nose 2. the heart is______to the breastbone(sternum) 3 the ankle is______to the knee 4 the ear is______to the eyes.
1. superior 2. posterior 3. superior 4. lateral
anterior fuerior
name the system of the body and its function
cris Reply
11 system are human body 1.integumentary system 2. skeletal system 3. muscular system 4. nervous system 5. endocrine system 6. cardiovascular system 7. lymphatic system 8. respiratory system 9. digestive system 10. urinary system 11. reproductive system male and female.
during pregnancy, which would more size the mother's abdominal or pelvic cavity? explain
how the body maintain hormeostasis in terms of bloodglucose level
cris Reply
It releases hormones from the pancreas insulin and glucagon
why human blood pressure high
amin Reply
fear, anxiety, sickness
why in mothers womb the foetus head is in anus direction?
As it seems the position downside n if we did such position thn soon we got vomiting then how foetus stay in downward position long time?
What is red blood cell
A type of blood cell that is made in the bone marrow and found in the blood. Red blood cells contain a protein called hemoglobin, which carries oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body. Checking the number of red blood cells in the blood is usually part of a complete blood cell (CBC) test. It
red blood cell are the most numerous blood cells.they comprise about 99% of all blood cells red blood cells are non nucleated it has red colour due to present to hemoglobin.
Thanks for the answers
how will you promote quality of life in ptb patient using the 14 basic needs and 21 nursing problems?
rOx Reply
coronary circulation ?
Juri Reply
Coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle (myocardium). Coronary arteries supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle, and cardiac veins drain away the blood once it has been deoxygenated. Because the rest of the body.
coronary circulation ,is flow of blood that supplies the heart tissue itself is the coronary circulation. the functional blood supply of the heart,is the shortest circulation in tha body.
what about the easy way to understand action potential
event of cardiac cycle
Juri Reply
hi 😷be safe your self
atrialsystole, ventricular systole,complete cardiac diastole
intrisic process which done by automic nerve
kaso Reply
anatomy is the scientific way of studying the body structure.
the branch of science concerned with the bodily structure of humans, animals, and other living organisms, especially as revealed by dissection and the separation of parts.
what is means by LAPE and HAPE
what is respiratory rate
guys i've question what occur when homeostasis balance mechanisms lost
cris Reply
Bladder is blank to the small intestine, what is the right directional term for that?
Julaika Reply
When peristaltic movement is correct.
what tissue that support body organ?
Sabrina Reply
the skeleton

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