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Social sciences: geography

Grade 9

Development issues

Module 1

Political background

1. Political background

  • The Second World War influenced political activities as well as development in South Africa. There was discord amongst the whites and the blacks were becoming impatient. The ANC and their Youth League became active and the Smuts government was in doubt about the road they should follow. The country was rapidly getting urbanised, which had certain implications for its development. The government of that time was of the opinion that segregation (separation and inequality amongst the different races) should be removed from the system. The pass laws became less stringent, blacks were recognised as men and women, and welfare programmes were launched to ensure the development of all the country’s people. In the meantime, however, Afrikaner nationalism was growing. This was the beginning of important changes in the country. Eventually the National Party won die general elections in 1948. This made them the governing party and the system of Apartheid became official. Segregation or the separation of races became formal practice, and all groups and areas were not developed equally. Certain areas and population groups remained behind. This is why we still refer to “previously disadvantaged communities”. The present government is trying to rectify the situation by offering everybody equal access to development and prosperity. This is one of the country’s biggest challenges in which all of us have to cooperate.

Genl. J.C. Smuts – leader in the United Party

A typical example of separate amenities

The first three prime ministers after the National Party came into power. From left to right:dr. D.F. Malan (1948 – 1954), mr. J.G. Strydom (1954 – 1958) and dr. H.F. Verwoerd (1958 – 1966)

Activity 1:

To write an essay on the changes that took place in South Africa after 1940

[LO 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4]

Study the following photos. Write an essay of one A4-page to describe the changes in more detail. Give examples of specific changes that had taken place. The History teacher and the learners’ parents and other members of the family might be able to supply more information. Ask two or three learners to read their reports to the class, and encourage discussion.

District Six

Selected sources to consult

1. Müller, C.F.J. e.a.: 500 Jaar Suid-Afrikaanse Geskiedenis, Kaapstad. 1980

2. Ormer-Cooper, J.D.: History of Southern Africa, London, 1994

3. Welsh, F.: A History of South Africa, London, 2000

4. Giliomee, H.: The Afrikaners, Cape Town, 2004


Learning outcomes(LO)
LO 3
EXPLORING THE ISSUES The learner can take informed decisions on social and environmental issues and problems
Assessment standards(AS)
This is clear when the learner:
  1. identifies social and environmental conflicts in South Africa and compares it with other contexts [identifies the issue];
3.2 identifies factors that have an influence on selected social and environmental disputes, including those regarding rights; gender; social, economical and political claims within a specific context [factors affecting the issues];
  1. analyses the reason for disputes or conflicts [makes choices];
3.4 takes informed decisions on various solutions to social and environmental conflicts [makes choices].

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11057/1.1
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