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General introduction of the LPC approach of our genre detection method.

Lpc approach

The LPC approach we used was based on the Linear Predictive Coefficients, which is a function in MATLAB.After researching predictive models, we determined that the LPC, which is normally applicable to speech, could be used for soundprediction as well. It works on the premise that given a vector, the LPC function will determine the coefficients of an Nth orderforward linear predictor.

A = LPC(X,N)

A = [1 A (2) A (3) ... A (N+1) ]

Determining the genre via errors

We used the dot product to find the error between the predicted nth term and the actual nth term of the inputmusic. For our purposes, we chose to use the 25th order after determining that it yielded the highest accuracyexperimentally.

Error = A * X

= X (n) – A (2)*X (n-1) – A (3)*X (n-2) – ... – A (N+1)*X (n-N)

The predictor was used to determine the error between the input song and the genre (our genre database). The ideais that the genre that gives the least error would be the genre of the input song.

RockLPCTotal ErrorClassicalLPCTotal ErrorRapLPCTotal ErrorInput Song? Genre ?

This figure represents the testing of the song with each genre database. Testing consisted of the followingprocedure:

We first loaded the input song. Then applied it to the database for each genre (one at a time) to determinewhich genre it is most similar to. For the first genre, find the LPC coefficients for it. Then section the input song vector intotwo sections of length 25 each, as shown in figure 2. Apply each section to the LPC coefficients to find the error for each section.Then sum up the errors in each section to find the total error for that genre. Finally, do it for all the genres. By the end of thisprocedure, we would have the total errors for each genre. And the minimum error should be the genre that the input song belongedto.

Sections of song vector (fig. 2)


We found several specific errors in using the LPC method. First and foremost, it took too much time to calculatethe errors (about 53 seconds per input song). Thus, we could not be able to put enough sampled songs into our database, which lead toget more accurate results. However, if we used another method of forming our database, specifically by using a matrix, thecomputations would have been much faster, and we could have used more songs in our database. The problem was that in our program, werecalculated the LPC coefficients each time we ran checked an input song. Had we saved the LPC coefficient values in a matrix, thecomputations would have been much faster.

The LPC could not accurately detect neither jazz nor pop under the algorithm we had developed. In fact, the LPCwas most accurate when deciding between two random types of songs, but not five. It was particularly accurate with rap andclassical.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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